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Research Methods for Business Students

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❶Using a mixed method design incorporating a structured card sort of possible emotions and subsequent in-depth interview, data were collected from 30 head office employees. Published 17 days ago.

Lack of resources for data collection

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Findings - The nature of psychological contracts and organisational attachments for both permanent employees and forced temporary workers is complex. Permanent employees generally continue to exhibit relational forms of attachment to the organisation. These, they believe, are reciprocated by the organisation. Reactions from forced temporary workers are more varied. After a period of denial, some develop a more calculative approach to their interactions.

Others maintain aspects of their previously developed relational attachments. Only some temporary workers appear to recognise that their future direction is no longer a concern of the organisation. Practical implications - Management actions need to be recognised as important in re-defining the nature of psychological contracts.

The transitional nature of this process may be prolonged where management imposes transactional contracts and where communication and negotiation to create clear expectations is lacking.

For many students and lecturers evaluation is confined to some form of survey. Whilst these can provide useful feedback, their focus is likely to reflect the values and norms of those commissioning and undertaking the evaluation. Using the example of dissertation supervision, it is argued that a revised Template Process operating within a process consultation framework can meet these concerns. The article concludes with a discussion of the applicability of the Template Process to evaluating teaching and learning.

Relationships within and outside organizations are changing, and the publishing sector is no exception. However, the roles of author and publisher remain distinct, each dependent on the other for the successful completion of a publishing project. Drawing upon research conducted in the English Language Teaching Division of an international publishing company, this article examines the authorpublisher relationship within a service context. It considers the characteristics authors and publishers identify to be integral to the relationship, and explores the extent to which the expectations and perceptions of authors and publishers differ.

The research findings indicate that there is a mismatch between the characteristics that authors and publishers identify as integral to their relationship.

Whilst publishers focus upon the role of the editor in the nurturing and maintenance of relationships with individual authors, authors consider their relationship to be with the whole publishing house, including the marketing and design functions.

Purpose To explore potential mismatches between stakeholders' perceptions and expectations of key and technical skills needed for an advanced modern apprentice within the UK. Using data collected from the automotive sector, the template process is used to establish lecturer, student and employee stakeholder group's expectations of a person taking up employment alongside an advanced modern apprenticeship or as an advanced modern apprentice.

Perceptions of the extent to which expectations are met and their relative importance are assessed. All stakeholders acknowledge that a skills gap exists across key and technical skills. However, whilst students focus on technical skills, lecturers and employees place greatest emphasis on key skills and their ability to transfer them. Although this research is based on the UK automotive sector, the findings emphasise the importance of key skills and understanding as part of students' learning.

Research is needed to establish why students appear to undervalue these and establish whether similar patterns exist in other sectors. The voluntarist approach to UK vocational education and training has, when combined with the need for further education colleges to be economically viable, resulted in courses that appear attractive but do not always meet the automotive sector's needs. Research is needed to establish whether this is occurring across other sectors.

This template process offers a new technique to explore stakeholders' perceptions and expectations. The findings provide new insights into the mismatches between expectations of the stakeholders in vocational education and training. This article commences with an overview of trust and mistrust, focusing on the debate about whether these are two ends of a continuum or distinct but interrelated concepts.

Building on this review, the relationship between employees' perceptions of organizational justice and their self-categorized feelings of trust and mistrust is considered. It is suggested that organizational justice offers a useful means through which to explain and understand employees' feelings of trust and mistrust.

Using case study data drawn from a UK public sector organization, the relationship between employees' feelings of trust and mistrust is explored within a change context. The data suggest that, whereas some employees perceive trust and mistrust as two ends of a continuum, others see them as distinct concepts. Drawing on organizational justice as an explanatory theory, reasons for these findings are offered. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the coexistence of trust and mistrust and the explanatory value of organizational justice theory in understanding this.

Within the literature, and the NHS itself, it is argued that successfully changing such an organisation requires the sustained commitment, trust and goodwill of staff. As part of developing and maintaining mutual trust and commitment it is widely argued that employers must meet the employee expectations which form part of the psychological contract, an important element of which, Armstrong argues, is being able to trust in management to keep their promises.

Using an anonymous questionnaire that explored areas central to IWL, data were collected from staff in five Primary Care Trusts within one Strategic Heath Authority in relation to their experiences and awareness of what was being done to address these issues.

The research found that although the IWL Standard makes very public promises about work-life balance, harassment, equality and the valuing of staff, at best these have only been partially delivered. Analyses the introduction and first three years of the operation of a new reward system in a financial services organisation. The purpose of the study was to develop an explanatory theory associated with reward system change effectiveness.

Following a description of the organisation and its operational context, analyses the new reward system, together with an examination of the specific objectives the organisation's managers hoped it would achieve.

Provides an explanation of the methods employed to collect and analyse the data. The main part of the paper comprises an analysis of these data, which provides evidence that the system was not meeting its objectives. Subsequently uses the literature on reward theory and organisational behaviour to help explain the reasons for such apparent ineffectiveness.

Concludes by suggesting a tentative theory of reward system change effectiveness. Drawing on 28 in-depth interviews with employees, the nature of trust is explored. Supporting earlier findings regarding the relationship between procedural justice and trust, the research also reveals the distinct importance of fairness of treatment interactional justice in enabling trust.

They have consequently tended to neglect how following presumptive trust individuals may be socialized into trusting behaviour that complies with norms dictated by more powerful actors, even where a trust violation offers evidence that becoming vulnerable will result in harm. The contribution we make is therefore two-fold. Firstly we explore the implications for trust of how service users make sense of events where there may be opportunity for discrepant sense-making.

For many students and lecturers evaluation is confined to some form of questionnaire survey. The paper concludes with a discussion of the wider applicability of the Template Process to evaluating teaching and learning. Trust research invariably asks questions about sensitive issues, highlighting the need to build rapport and trust between the researcher and participant. It may also be necessary to ensure participants are not sensitized to the focus on trust.

This chapter outlines the use of a card sort, concurrent with an in-depth interview to help overcome these issues. Purpose To reflect on reasons for refusal in cross-cultural telephone surveys and address ways of reducing non-response from Chinese managers. We first propose a conceptual model for telephone survey cooperation, drawing on existing research regarding survey non-response.

This is evaluated through reflections on non-response to a telephone survey of 1, Chinese senior and middle managers working in privately owned high-technology firms. We conclude with a framework for cooperation in cross-cultural telephone surveys, enhancing the leverage-saliency theory. Among many factors, home country interviewers are crucial in gaining access and generating survey interview responses.

However, they require careful recruitment, rigorous training and monitoring to help ensure the quality of research data. Our framework provides practical advice in minimising non-response in cross-cultural telephone surveys. This includes sample selection, the development of the survey instrument and translation , reasons for refusal, research incentives and the role of interviewers.

Our contribution in this chapter is twofold: A reader who picks up this handbook will, we imagine, share the excitement and frustration about trust that thinkers have experienced for millennia and that is still felt throughout the growing community of trust researchers nowadays: As scholars we have to reach past the undying topicality and apparent importance of trust as we apply our research methods to this challenge, only to realize their limitations when the object of study is trust.

The chapters show that we have a broad array of methods that help us rise to the challenge of capturing at least part of the multi-faceted phenomenon of trust. To date, an overview of the many methods that can be used for studying trust has been missing. It is our aim to provide such an overview with this handbook, while recognizing that it cannot be fully exhaustive. Through this handbook we hope to encourage trust researchers to reflect on the methods they use, to acknowledge contributions from a variety of methodological positions and to improve methods and instruments according to the specific challenges posed by trust.

Our optimism in this respect is based on the relative methodological openness and pluralism we have observed in the trust research community. Perhaps more than in other fields, our research topic prevents methodological hubris as it constantly reminds us how no method can provide the perfect understanding of a phenomenon.

In line with these considerations, the editors and contributors of this volume have explored trust from a variety of directions. As trust is a concept that cannot be easily observed or even defined, the trust research community has drawn on ideas across academia to gain a better understanding of it. This book reflects on the journeys of trust researchers and through the sharing of their experiences hopes to cast light on methods for those researching trust. This paper commences with an overview of trust and mistrust, focusing on the debate about whether these are two ends of a continuum or distinct but interrelated concepts.

The data suggest that, while some employees perceive trust and mistrust as two ends of a continuum, others see them as distinct concepts. These findings are conceptualised as a Trust-Mistrust-Absence triangle. Drawing on organisational justice as an explanatory theory, reasons for these findings are offered.

The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the co-existence of trust and mistrust and the explanatory value of organisational justice theory in understanding this. The conventional wisdom, not just in the UK but also internationally, is that the major banks are not interested in lending to small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs. In contrast, some studies suggest that most SMEs seeking external funding are successful in their applications.

The current study sets out to investigate the truth of these seemingly contradictory claims and makes recommendations for improvements in SME access to bank finance. Access was obtained to interview the senior lending policy makers of four major banks and one challenger bank. Research revealed that the majority of SMEs seeking routes to finance avoid banks and traditional financial institutions.

Although banks are used by SMEs, they are not the primary source of finance. From an SME perspective, not only do banks not provide the capital required, but they also seem to know very little about what businesses particularly small businesses need. However, the picture is more nuanced than this.

Of those SMEs that seek access to external finance, banks are still the primary source. Furthermore, and contrary to popular myth, the majority of SMEs seeking finance from banks do obtain it.

This situation, however, has deteriorated. This partly helps to explain the growth in importance of alternative sources of finance such as business angels, peer-to-peer lending and crowd funding. Drawing upon the literature reviewed, the two focus groups with SMEs, and the five bank interviews, a number of key findings were derived. There are approximately 4. However, while such Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs are of importance, it is their durability that can be considered of greater significance.

The precarious nature of SME existence has been well documented. Put simply, small firms are more likely to die than larger firms.

Indeed, other than size per se, the higher likelihood of death is what distinguishes small from large firms. However, multiple failures can be experienced as the springboard for later success provided learning takes place.

Much of the research into small firms has focused on their failure. The danger of this approach is that it identifies what has gone wrong, but may fail to discover what they need to get right. The approach of the current study, then, is to focus on the triggers that lead to SME success, as a way of highlighting more effective strategy decisions for firms themselves, and to inform better policy decisions for government. Thursday 4 June Thursday 23 March Fri Sep 14 Research Interests Within my research I adopt a pragmatist approach utilizing a range of data collection methods alongside both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques.

Human resource aspects of the management of change: Trust within and between organisations, in particular issues associated with: Understanding and improving relationships within organisations, between organisations and between organisations and their customers. Implications for organisations of using online research methods. Ethical implications for researchers of using online research methods.

Methods to research sensitive topics such as trust and justice. Development of the Template Process as a tool to learn about, understand and improve organizational relationships within a process consultation framework. Publications Toggle Browse by Latest. Sacred places, vows and visions'. Elsevier Masson Annals of Tourism Research , 70, pp. Abstract The aim of this paper is to understand the complexity of travel motivations to sacred places.

Abstract The aim of this paper is to decipher ways of experiencing religiousness through tourist performances, intersecting textual approaches with the essential embodiment and materiality of the tourist world.

Abstract This paper provides an empirical test of whether trust and distrust can co-exist in the mind of an employee. Abstract This research explores how elective surgical patients make sense of their hospitalization experiences. Abstract Explaining the purpose of a research study and providing a compelling rationale is an important part of any coaching research project, enabling the work to be set in the context of both existing evidence and theory and its practical applications.

Findings The main methodological concerns regarding Delphi are the definition of consensus, the expertise of the panel, its lack of scientific rigour, and -due to its lack of uniformity- reliability and validity of findings. Retrieved December 6, , from www. An epidemiologic approach 3rd Edition. Toward a definition of mixed methods research.

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1 2 , Handbook of tests and measurements for Black populations. Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to best practice. An expanded sourcebook 2nd Ed. Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials. Jama, 18 , Statistical methods for health care research 5th Edition. Recruitment of black women with type 2 diabetes into a self-management intervention trial.

Ethn Dis, 16 4 , Using focus groups to improve the validity of cross-national survey research: Qual Health Res, 17 7 , Measurement, design, and analysis: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publications. Appraising evidence for nursing practice 7th Edition. Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice 8th Edition. Health technologies for monitoring and managing diabetes: J Diabetes Sci Technol, 3 6 , Compendium of Quality of Life Instruments.

Journal of Medical Ethics, 34, e Retrieved December 10, , from http: Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. African American Women's beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers to seeking mental health services. Qual Health Res, 19 11 , Diabet Med, 20 1 , Validity in qualitative research.

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The three books: Research Methods for Business Students by Saunders et al., Business Research Methods, 8th Edition by William G. Zikmund et al., and BusiResearch Methods for Business Students (7th Edition)ness Research Methods by Donald Cooper et al. complement one another in many good ways. The coverage of /5(28).

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In this book, Saunders et al address what are perhaps the two biggest problems in teaching Research Methods - getting students interested in methodology and theory and helping them to understand the practical relevance. Depth of coverage combined with an accessible style, a real practicality and a straightforward structure result in consistently /5(5).

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Saunders et al. Pearson Higher & Professional Homepage. Always Learning. Within this article we use the metaphor of the “Research Onion” (Saunders et al., ) to illustrate how these final elements (the core of the research onion) need to be considered in relation to other design elements (the outer layers of the.

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Saunders et al () states that systematic research encompasses specific methods to collect data, deliberation on the significance of the results obtained, and an explanation of any limitations experienced. Research Design and Methodology Part 1 Week 4 – Andre SamuelAndre Samuel. •Mixed Methods Research Techniques/Procedure •Data Collection •Data AnalysisData Analysis •Interpretation. The Research ‘Onion’ Saunders et al () Some clarifications on termsSome clarifications on terms • Some say ResearchSome say Research.