All these states define a hate crime as a criminal act perpetrated due to the victim's race, religion, and ethnicity, while some also include sexual orientation, gender, and disability as criteria for hate crimes. Only Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, South Carolina, and Wyoming do not have hate crime statutes on their books, though hate crimes in those states are prosecuted under existing statutes covering murder, theft, harassment, and assault.
According to the FBI Hate Crime Statistics, there were 7, "single-bias" criminal hate crime incidents involving 9, offenses and 9, victims defined as "a person, business, institution, or society as a whole" in An FBI analysis of those incidents revealed the following:. Motivation Percentage Most impacted group Racial bias The figure is double what it was in Bello, , p.
The attacks of September 11, , sent shockwaves through American society. Coordinated terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, DC, brought home to many Americans that the United States is not immune to being attacked on its own soil. Because the attacks were carried out exclusively by self-professed Muslims, the attacks also shined a spotlight, perhaps for the first time, on the 2.
Researchers have found that the expected spike in anti-Muslim hate crime did occur in the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks. These researchers also found, however, that the anti-Muslim hate crimes followed a specific pattern of intensity: Most curiously, given the locations of the terrorist attacks, "New York City and Washington, DC, anti-Islamic hate crime reports are essentially non-existent DC did have one report.
As for the somewhat counterintuitive finding that anti-Muslim hate crimes were markedly absent from police blotters in New York City and Washington, DC, the research team suggested that this. In other words, the trauma of the attacks drew people in New York and Washington, DC, together rather than driving them apart.
One of the most controversial social and political issues in the United States in the early twenty-first century has involved illegal immigrants, also known as undocumented workers. An example is the actus reus of perjury which occurs when the defendant lies under oath regardless of the effect that the lie has on the case.
The actus reus can also be an omission or result of the act by the defendant. This can occur whether or not the conduct is criminal. It can also include a state of affairs where the actus reus focuses on the defendant being in a state of bias towards the victim rather than doing the act of bias Gardner, However, they are also subject to certain exceptions like the statutory and contractual duties of the defendant.
The former describes the situation where the defendant has a statutory role to perform, while the latter describes if an individual owes a contractual responsibility to perform bias. Consequently, failure to fulfill this responsibility may lead to criminal liability. I agree with Lawrence. The fact that bias crimes are more harmful to the victim means that these crimes are essentially more actionable.
Lawrence defends this opinion by arguing that victims in bias crimes are not attacked randomly. Another appropriate reason is that these crimes harm the society as a whole. The harm to the society and to the victim distinguishes these crimes from their parallel counterparts. However, it leaves one with a dilemma between the difference of intent and motive.
The defendant intends bias when he or she desires to commit the ensuing outcome. I, however, think that since these two factors have to merge at some point during a criminal trial, then they should be perceived as similar. Moreover, Lawrence does not address this issue adequately and this part of his argument lags behind as a result.
These arguments describe the relationship between bias crimes and parallel crimes. According to Jenness , criminals who commit hate crimes intend to harm the victim as well as the community as a whole. Studies reveal that they can have psychological implications that are beyond other violent crimes, which are not encouraged by bias.
Communities identify themselves with their members, thus a victim of hate crime can lead to other community members in his or her community to live in alienation and fear from the rest of the society. The fact that many states in the U. S are metropolitan means that it is easy for the implications brought by these crimes to trigger nationwide controversy.
For example, the city of New York inhabits millions of people from all over the world. Read some scientific books and researches or watch documentary films. On the other hand, you can write some facts about the Ku Klux Klan, as it is more related to American history.
You may search some hate crimes, which happened in your native country in the past. Every place has such a sad page in its history. After the explanation of the history of hate crimes, it is time to mention some modern cases. Furthermore, racial or gender discrimination is one of the most important issues nowadays.
Thousands of people encounter it every day. This means that this topic is still trendy. Name some recent hate crimes: This is a kind of hate crime, which was made on the basis of gender. On the other hand, you can say that humanity is trying to reduce such events and teach people how to be tolerant and patient to each other. The next chapter of your report should be about the methods of overcoming hate crimes.
Think over this topic and decide how humanity can fight against them. Firstly, you should explain that it is a long-lasting process. After that, you have to put down the exact methods how these crimes can be prevented. It may be a kind of strict punishment or other legal methods. In addition, you can mention explaining to people, especially students, to make them aware of the harmfulness of such crimes.
It is impossible to build a strong society with discriminations and prejudice. Tell your reader that people should not be divided into groups. All of them are worth to be respected and it does not depend on the skin color or any other personal features.
Hate crimes are a specific type of crime committed against individuals or groups because of their race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, or ethnicity. Genocide is an extreme form of hate.
A bias crime also referred to as a hate crime is an offence committed against properties or people, which is motivated, in part or in whole, by the suspect’s prejudice, bias, or hate towards an identifiable group footed on, perceived or real national or ethnic origin, race, colour, mental or physical disability, language, sex, religion.
- Hate Crime in the United States of America THESIS: In this research paper, information will be given on hate crime in the United States of America. It’s best to know about these types of crimes before it’s too late because it’s rarely reported or spoken about but does occur on regular bases. A hate crime is a violent act against people, property, or organizations because of the group to which they belong or identify with. Hate crimes are committed against many different groups of people. Different types of people also commit these crimes.
This research paper will present the history of hate crime law, the scope of the problem, the theory and psychology behind hateful/prejudicial behaviors, characteristics of perpetrators and victims, policing hate crime, and responding to and preventing hate crime. Research Paper on Hate Crimes Deal All The Aspects of Hate Crimes Research Paper Hate crimes are those crimes that are the result of hate for certain group of .