Because of the build-up of this waste, some power plants will be forced to shut down. To avoid losing an important source of energy, a safe and economical place to keep this waste is necessary. This document proposes a literature review of whether Yucca Mountain is a suitable site for a nuclear waste repository.
The proposed review will discuss the economical and environmental aspects of a national storage facility. This proposal includes my methods for gathering information, a schedule for completing the review, and my qualifications. However, the DOE is undecided on where to put this high level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain, located in Nevada, is a proposed site.
There are many questions regarding the safety of the Yucca Mountain waste repository. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory disagree over the long-term safety of the proposed high level nuclear waste site located in Nevada. In , Charles Bowman, a researcher at Los Alamos, developed a theory claiming that years of storing waste in the mountain may actually start a nuclear chain reaction and explode, similar to an atomic bomb [Taubes, ].
The stir caused by theory suggests that researchers have not explored all sides of the safety issue concerning potentially hazardous situations at Yucca Mountain. Bowman's theory that Yucca Mountain could explode is based upon the idea that enough waste will eventually disperse through the rock to create a critical mass.
A critical mass is an amount of fissile material, such as plutonium, containing enough mass to start a neutron chain reaction [Murray, ]. Bowman argues that if this chain reaction were started underground, the rocks in the ground would help keep the system compressed and speed up the chain reaction [Taubes, ].
A chain reaction formed underground could then generate huge amounts of energy in a fraction of a second, resulting in a nuclear blast. A nuclear explosion of this magnitude would emit large amounts of radioactivity into the air and ground water. Another safety concern is the possibility of a volcanic eruption in Yucca Mountain. The long-term nuclear waste storage facility needs to remain stable for at least 10, years to allow the radioactive isotopes to decay to natural levels [Clark, ].
There are at least a dozen young volcanoes within 40 kilometers of the proposed Yucca Mountain waste site [Weiss, ]. The proximity of Yucca Mountain to these volcanoes makes it possible to have a volcanic eruption pass through the spent fuel waste repository. Such a volcanic eruption could release damaging amounts of radioactivity to the environment.
Objectives I propose to review the available literature about using Yucca Mountain as a possible repository for spent nuclear fuel. In this review I will achieve the following two goals: According to the Department of Energy DOE , a repository for high-level radioactive waste must meet several criteria including safety, location, and economics [Roush, ]. Safety includes not only the effect of the repository on people near the site, but also people along the transportation routes to the site.
In my research I will consider both groups of people. As far as location, a waste site cannot be in an area with a large population or near a ground water supply. Also, because one of the most significant factors in determining the life span of a possible repository is how long the waste storage canisters will remain in tact, the waste site must be located in a dry climate to eliminate the moisture that can cause the waste canisters to corrode.
The economics involved in selecting a site is another criterion. For that reason, much pressure exists to select Yucca Mountain as a repository site; otherwise, this money would have been wasted. Other costs, though, have to be considered. For instance, how economical is it to transport radioactive waste across several states to a single national site?
I will try to account for as many of these other costs as possible. After explaining the criteria, I will assess how well Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. In this assessment, I will not assign a numerical score for each criterion. Rather, I will discuss qualitatively how well Yucca Mountain meets each criterion. In some situations, disagreement exists among experts as to how well Yucca Mountain meets a criterion.
In such cases, I will present both sides. In this assessment, only Yucca Mountain will be considered as a possible site. Plan of Action This section presents my plan for obtaining the objectives discussed in the previous section. There has been an increase of interest in the nuclear industry concerning the Yucca Mountain site because of the January 1,, deadline for the DOE.
Several journal articles and papers discussing the possibility of Yucca Mountain as a spent fuel repository in our near future have surfaced as a consequence of that interest. These articles and books about the dangers of nuclear waste should provide sufficient information for me to complete my review.
The following two paragraphs will discuss how I will use these sources in my research. The first goal of my research is to explain the criteria for determining whether a nuclear waste repository is suitable. For example, will the rock structure be able to withstand human invasion in the future [Clark, ]?
What will happen if the waste containers corrode and do not last as long as predicted? Will the natural setting contain the waste? A second goal of my literature review is to evaluate Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. I will base my evaluation on the sources mentioned above as well as specific Environmental Protection Agency standards.
I also intend to research the validity of possible environmental disasters, such as the explosion theory. To accomplish this goal, I will rely on the paper presented by Clark , and on the book Blowup at Yucca Mountain [Taubes, ]. Because engineering students are the primary audience for my proposed research topic and may not be familiar with the history of nuclear waste, I will provide a background on past methods used for waste storage.
People in the nuclear field with some knowledge of the waste problem facing the industry may be a secondary audience. Management Plan This section presents my schedule, costs, and qualifications for completing the proposed research. This research culminates in a formal report, which will be completed by December 5, To reach this goal, I will follow the schedule presented in Figure 1.
Since I already possess literature on the subject of Yucca Mountain as a nuclear waste site, most of my time will be spent sorting through the literature to find key results, and presenting those results to the audience. Schedule for completion of the literature review. The formal presentation will be on October 27, and the formal report will be completed by December 5.
Given that all my sources are available through the University of Wisconsin library system, there is no appreciable cost associated with performing this review, unless one takes into consideration the amount of tuition spent on maintaining the university libraries.
The only other minor costs are photocopying articles, creating transparencies for my presentation, printing my report, and binding my report.
I am a senior in the Engineering Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, majoring in nuclear engineering and physics. I have taken several classes related to nuclear waste, economics, and environmental studies.
I believe that these courses will aid me in preparing the proposed review. For further information about my qualifications, see the attached resume. Conclusion More than 30, metric tons of nuclear waste have arisen from U.
This document has proposed research to evaluate the possibility of using Yucca Mountain as a possible repository for this spent nuclear fuel. The proposed research will achieve the following goals: The research will include a formal presentation on November 11 and a formal report on December 5. References Clark, Raymond L.
Environmental Protection Agency, Rating Radioactive Waste Risks," Science, vol. Some of these earthquakes kill hundreds of people. If the times, magnitudes, and locations of these earthquakes could be accurately predicted, many lives could be saved. This document proposes a review of how monitoring geophysical precursors can help in the short-term prediction of earthquakes. The proposed review will discuss the physical principles behind the monitoring of three common precursors and evaluate how accurate each monitoring is in predicting earthquakes.
Included in this proposal are my methods for gathering information, a schedule for completing the review, and my qualifications. Justification of Proposed Review On the morning of April 18, , the population of San Francisco was awakened by violent shaking and by the roar caused by the writhing and collapsing of buildings [Hodgson, ].
The ground appeared to be thrown into waves that twisted railways and broke the pavement into great cracks. Many buildings collapsed, while others were severely damaged. The earthquake caused fires in fifty or more points throughout the city. Fire stations were destroyed, alarms were put out of commission, and water mains were broken.
As a result, the fires quickly spread throughout the city and continued for three days. The fires destroyed a 5 square-mile section at the heart of the city [Mileti and Fitzpatrick, ]. Even more disastrous was the Kwanto earthquake in Japan that devastated the cities of Yokohama and Tokyo on September 1, [Hodgson, ]. In Yokohama, over 50 percent of the buildings were destroyed [Bolt, ], and as many as fires broke out and spread through the city [Hodgson, ].
When the disaster was over, 33, people were dead [Bolt, ]. Proposal, plan of action, all the "why's" of the paper and so on. As in any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate. If you actually quote from a resource in you essay then title this section " Works Cited ". If you do not cite anything word for word, use " Works Consulted ".
In , Pablo Picasso, an avid painter of nature and still life, tore part of a makeshift tablecloth and glued it to his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning , and thus, by adding different items to aid his painting, he began the art of collage making. A collage is simply a group of objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory.
The bug in the image is the smallest feature of the collage yet it is to be viewed as the most important aspect Modler, David. All these parts of a collage collaborate together to create a unifying theme or message and can be used as a helpful tool in education. I propose that each student make an artistic collage to be presented to the class that will symbolize the context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in one of the readings this semester.
Students who make a collage will be able to drop the lowest quiz grade. The students will have one week from the announcement of the project to complete the collage and prepare a presentation for it.
Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will read in the future, and no two students may choose the same work. Conflict with students wanting to present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis. The students will be given a rubric with the exact requirements of the project and what the purpose of the project is. I will make the rubric myself and submit it for approval, or we can use the rubric that I have attached. Since a collage would be like giving the student an opportunity to go back and review a subject and at the same time would resemble preparation for a presentation, the time and effort required to go back and re-read a work as well as prepare the collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the lowest quiz grade.
Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to the class because, just like any play is better seen than read, the collage will allow students to get the visual aspect behind a work and help them to grasp the ideas better.
Past visuals that we have used in class to describe scenes from our readings such as The Tempest and The Odyssey have greatly helped me to understand some of the ideas of the stories. I could not have seen that perspective of the story had it not been for some of the more innocent visuals on the board.
Finally, I have discussed with the students in our class about the idea of a collage replacing the lowest quiz grade and the overwhelming majority approved of the idea. Since a collage will substitute for a quiz grade, the assignment will be optional. Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on class initiation of discussion, the collage will also be optional based on similar student effort parameters. This quiz can be used to make the total number of assignments for each student in the class even, and may or may not be graded based on the professor's discretion.
The first goal of my collage proposal is to give students a chance to be creative and step outside the boundaries of classroom discussion. They can use their imaginations to find a way to creatively put together a collage that will help the class as well as themselves to better understand the course reading.
A second goal of my proposal is that the time and effort put into making the collage and presenting it in front of the class will equal the worth of dropping the lowest quiz grade. Because this collage requires the creator to examine the context, audience, setting, structure of any one of the readings, it is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on similar topics.
The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on will determine how much time is necessary to fully complete the project.
One week to create a collage should give each student—no matter what reading they choose to do—ample time to create a presentable and educational collage for the class. In terms of tangible resources, this project is not very demanding.
A simple poster or a series of photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about as resourcefully demanding as this project gets. In addition, a few hours of class time will need to be allocated in order to present the collages. If each student takes at least five minutes to present the total time needed for the presentations will be 1 hour and 15 minutes.
The presentation day s and time s can be decided by the class as a whole. A collage will allow students to understand visually a reading or topic in a reading that they may have been confused about. The project is a fun and creative way to get students to think about a reading more in depth as well as review for future exams. As a result of the effort and time put into the collages, the students should be allowed to drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester. Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account.
Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites. What an excellent hub. I'll call it tutorial for learners. It really helps one understand the start point even if everything seems blank. Laura, what a great skill you have. I wish I was bless with it: It have gave me a guideline for my proposal.
Thank you again God bless you! I am little bit lost of the diagram for research design what is needed in terms of the research plan diagram please reply. A powerful guide in fact. It lists almost all aspects of writing a proposal essay.
However, there is one thing students have to note. Even though there are certain rules and principles for writing an essay, there is always scope for breaking the conventions. Universities always accept innovations in writing. Be prepared to write in the most recent writing mechanics. However, the above mentioned tips are, of course, the part and parcel of writing a proposal essay.
This was a really great detailed format of how to write a proposal essay. I believe all college students need to read this! As a writer, this helped me, and you explained it very well. Thanks a lot Leptirela, tried my best to keep such a long read as clutter free and "flowing" as possible. Interesting infographic how to write an argumentative essay http: For the writer it is important that it be clear, to the point and as concise as possible.
It is important to remember that the reader is the one who will accept or reject your proposal either way due to a wide array of factors.
Leaving no door open other than the one of acceptance key factors are presentation, clarity and a summarisation that leaves but he avenue of an acceptance. Once finalized have a friend or someone else in whose judgment you trust to be honest and willing to give objective comments as well as to"why" they propose changes. One practice I enforce when writing anything that is consequential is to set the document aside forgetting about it for a couple of days and the review it again.
A fresh read is always good. Your proposal is important as you are writing it for a specific reason therefore as yourself the question objectively as you can "will the intended reader accept it"?
If you have a slight hesitation review it again and try to find the weak point and rewrite it to give it strength. Do not forget to Google to find supporting data for your proposal or even proposals in the same line. This was extremely helpful! I wasn't quite sure how to lay my proposal essay out. So thank you, thank you!
This was a great go-by. Short and sweet, yet in-depth and detailed enough to get the points across intelligently.
Just what I was looking for. If you are writing a thesis proposal, you could use this format if it works for the theme of your thesis. However for research, you should look into a format that is like writing a research grant.
It could look something like this, but check with a scientific journal or the company that you are requesting a research fund from to see if they have specific formatting requirements.
Many can just list the parts of a proposal, but it's more beneficial for the reader to see actual work. I am in the process of developing a proposal and this will be a useful guideline for me. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages and Hubbers authors may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
Get to Know Your Audience. Remember, a proposal essay is an effort to convince a reader that your idea is worth pursuing - or that another idea is not worth pursuing. Are they business people? Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to persuading others of your proposal.
Spend some time talking to experts or reading their research. Before starting the actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas. Never turn in a first draft! Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and give you feedback.
Then take some time to incorporate that feedback into a second draft. Main Parts of a Proposal Essay. Proposal This is a statement of purpose.
Plan of Action How will you go about achieving your proposal? A couple things to include: Necessary Resources Another simple part. Preparations Made Show the audience that you know what you are doing.
The goal of a research proposal is to present and justify the need to study a research problem and to present the practical ways in which the .
Research Paper Proposal Sample gis / sec. A / early fall quarter / chang A research proposal considers your overall topic ideas, your research question, your research process, and your.
Below is a research paper proposal template for you to use. You will need to fill your information into the [ ] brackets where I have instructions and tips for you. Keep in mind that your professor may have some different requirements based upon their preferences. It is a paper, which aims to deliver a brief information on the research you want to conduct, explaining the main reasons why it will be useful for the reader and for the society. A correct research proposal should contain: the main idea of the paper; reasons why the research should be conducted; used methodology.
Are you struggling with your research paper proposal? Would you like to learn how to write a research paper proposal? Use our free guide! Mar 05, · When it comes to your proposal for research paper writing, you need to think about logical steps, interesting ideas, and 4/4(78).