The dependent one is a response that is influenced by the independent treatment. Thus, if you are performing a qualitative study, there are no independent and dependent variables. The research design should establish a strong sequence of the events in a research process. The size of this section depends on the number of experiments performed and results expected. So, the detailed explanation of each method and point should be documented. Include the following elements:.
Summarize all you have written in the last part of this section. The last paragraph should include a short explanation of data analysis. Conclude it with a sentence that would introduce the next chapter of your dissertation. Cool article with much useful information. But I think more examples of the exact words and phrases to use would be appropriate, too. Thank you for the step-by-step manual on what to include in the third chapter of a dissertation.
However, the lack of examples in the article is obvious. But the general idea is clear. Recommend reading this article to those who do not understand what to put in the third chapter of the dissertation.
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You might also like:. But did that mean she was off the hook for completing the annotated bibliography assignment? Instead, she went back to Sociological Abstracts and searched again using different combinations of search terms. Of course, they were not focused on prosmoking activist efforts, but they were focused on her population of interest, college students, and on her broad topic of interest, activism.
I suggested that reading articles on college student activism might give her some idea about what other researchers have found in terms of what motivates college students to become involved in activist efforts.
I also suggested she could play around with her search terms and look for research on activism centered on other sorts of activities that are perceived by some as deviant, such as marijuana use or veganism. In other words, she needed to be broader in her search for articles. While this student found success by broadening her search for articles, her reading of those articles needed to be narrower than her search.
Once she identified a set of articles to review by searching broadly, it was time to remind herself of her specific research focus: Keeping in mind her particular research interest while reviewing the literature gave her the chance to think about how the theories and findings covered in prior studies might or might not apply to her particular point of focus.
For example, theories on what motivates activists to get involved might tell her something about the likely reasons the students she planned to study got involved. At the same time, those theories might not cover all the particulars of student participation in smoke-outs. Thinking about the different theories then gave the student the opportunity to focus her research plans and even to develop a few hypotheses about what she thought she was likely to find.
Developing an annotated bibliography is often one of the early steps that researchers take as they begin to familiarize themselves with prior research on their topic. A second step involves a literature review in which a researcher positions his or her work within the context of prior scholarly work in the area. A literature review addresses the following matters: What sorts of questions have other scholars asked about this topic?
What do we already know about this topic? As the researcher answers these questions, he or she synthesizes what is contained in the literature, possibly organizing prior findings around themes that are relevant to his or her particular research focus.
I once advised an undergraduate student who conducted a research project on speciesism, the belief that some species are superior to or have more value and rights than others. She organized subsections around the three most common answers that were presented in the scholarly literature.
This organizational scheme helped readers understand what we already know about the topic and what theories we rely on to help make sense of the topic.
A sociological study of speciesism might examine why and how humans construct divisions between themselves and animals. The preceding discussion about how to organize a review of scholarly literature assumes that we all know how to read scholarly literature.
Yes, yes, I understand that you must know how to read. But reading scholarly articles can be a bit more challenging than reading a textbook. Here are a few pointers about how to do it successfully. The abstract may also give you some idea about the theoretical proclivities of the author.
As a result, reading the abstract gives you both a framework for understanding the rest of the article and the punch line. It tells you what the author s found and whether the article is relevant to your area of inquiry. After the abstract, most journal articles will contain the following sections although exact section names are likely to vary: Of course, there will also be a list of references cited, Lists of references cited are a useful source for finding additional literature in an area.
While you should get into the habit of familiarizing yourself with articles you wish to cite in their entirety , there are strategic ways to read journal articles that can make them a little easier to digest.
Because your own review of literature is likely to emphasize findings from previous literature, you should make sure that you have a clear idea about what those findings are. As you read through the rest of the article, think about the elements of research design that we have covered in this chapter.
What approach does the researcher take? Is the research exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory? Is it inductive or deductive? What claims does the author make about causality?
Use what you have learned in this chapter about the promise and potential pitfalls associated with each of these research elements to help you responsibly read and understand the articles you review.
Future chapters of this text will address other elements of journal articles, including choices about measurement, sampling, and research method. As you learn about these additional items, you will increasingly gain more knowledge that you can apply as you read and critique the scholarly literature in your area of inquiry.
Forming a clear research question, as discussed in Chapter 4 "Beginning a Research Project" , is another crucial step. At the same time that you work to identify a clear research question, you will probably also think about the overarching goals of your research project. Will it be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory? Will your approach be idiographic or nomothetic, inductive or deductive?
How you design your project might also be determined in part by whether you aim for your research to have some direct application or if your goal is to contribute more generally to sociological knowledge about your topic. Next, think about what your units of analysis and units of observation will be. These will help you identify the key concepts you will study.
Defining your concepts, and knowing them when you see them, has to do with conceptualization and operationalization, the focus of Chapter 6 "Defining and Measuring Concepts". Of course, you also need to know what approach you will take to collect your data.
Thus identifying your research method is another important part of research design. You also need to think about who your research participants will be and what larger group s they may represent.
The methodology section of a research study explains to the reader how the study was conducted. It is similar to the methodology section of a research proposal, but in the study write-up, this section explains what actually was done rather than what was intended to be done.
Important components of your research strategy for a dissertation or thesis.
Major Components of Research Design in Research Methodology The research design components apply to all types of qualitative, deductive research, whether in the physical or social sciences. The six components of a research report are as follows: An abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and references. The Abstract The abstract is an overview of the research study and is typically two to four paragraphs in length.
Components of a Research Paper. In this segment, the key components of a quality research paper will be identified and discussed. Learning Objectives. The methods section will describe the research design and methodology used . A research problem can be simply defined as a statement that identifies the problem or situation to be studied. Components of research problem An individual or a group with some difficulty or problem.