The present population of India consists of over 1. The big population of India undoubtedly provides large work-force resources which, if properly utilized, can highly advance the economic prosperity of the country. However, a large number of people are poor and illiterate.
Their basic need are not being met. Under the existing condition of our economy, it cannot be said that the vast masses of people growing out of proportion to our resources are really an asset to the country. We have to give more attention to the growth of population and its relation to the problem of unemployment and capital formation in the country. One of the most interesting stories of population control comes from Kerala.
Here the population growth has stabilized at zero even though per capita incomes are low. Kerala with the help of international population funding agencies developed a plan suitable to its unique cultural, social, religious and political characteristics and focused on a few crucial factors. Firstly, it has achieved an absolute rate of literacy. Second, through good health care and adequate nutrition, they have lowered their infant mortality rate dramatically.
And thirdly, they have made birth control devices readily and freely available. Population control strategies in the country should be based on policies used in Kerala.
In natural ecosystems, under conditions of unlimited resources and ideal environmental condition, species can multiply at a maximum rate. However, in actual practice the population of a species remains in check due to interaction of the inhibiting species as also finite nature of resource availability.
Difficulties of raising a family eventually reduce the rate of population growth, until the falling population again leads to higher real wages:. It very rarely happens that the nominal price of labour universally falls; but we well know that it frequently remains the same, while the nominal price of provisions has been gradually rising. This, indeed, will generally be the case, if the increase of manufactures and commerce be sufficient to employ the new labourers that are thrown into the market, and to prevent the increased supply from lowering the money-price.
But an increased number of labourers receiving the same money-wages will necessarily, by their competition, increase the money-price of corn. This is, in fact, a real fall in the price of labour; and, during this period, the condition of the lower classes of the community must be gradually growing worse. But the farmers and capitalists are growing rich from the real cheapness of labour.
Their increasing capitals enable them to employ a greater number of men; and, as the population had probably suffered some check from the greater difficulty of supporting a family, the demand for labour, after a certain period, would be great in proportion to the supply, and its price would of course rise, if left to find its natural level; and thus the wages of labour, and consequently the condition of the lower classes of society, might have progressive and retrograde movements, though the price of labour might never nominally fall.
In later editions of his essay, Malthus clarified his view that if society relied on human misery to limit population growth, then sources of misery e. On the other hand, "preventive checks" to population that limited birthrates, such as later marriages, could ensure a higher standard of living for all, while also increasing economic stability.
The full title of the first edition of Malthus' essay was "An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it affects the Future Improvement of Society with remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Condorcet , and Other Writers. William Godwin had published his utopian work Enquiry concerning Political Justice in , with later editions in and Also, Of Avarice and Profusion Malthus' remarks on Godwin's work spans chapters 10 through 15 inclusive out of nineteen.
Godwin responded with Of Population Malthus' remarks on Condorcet's work spans chapters 8 and 9. This natural inequality of the two powers, of population, and of production of the earth, and that great law of our nature which must constantly keep their effects equal, form the great difficulty that appears to me insurmountable in the way to the perfectibility of society.
The only authors from whose writings I had deduced the principle, which formed the main argument of the Essay, were Hume, Wallace, Adam Smith, and Dr. Chapters 1 and 2 outline Malthus' Principle of Population, and the unequal nature of food supply to population growth.
The exponential nature of population growth is today known as the Malthusian growth model. This aspect of Malthus' Principle of Population, together with his assertion that food supply was subject to a linear growth model, would remain unchanged in future editions of his essay. Note that Malthus actually used the terms geometric and arithmetic , respectively.
Chapter 3 examines the overrun of the Roman empire by barbarians, due to population pressure. War as a check on population is examined. Chapter 4 examines the current state of populousness of civilized nations particularly Europe. Malthus criticises David Hume for a "probable error" in his "criteria that he proposes as assisting in an estimate of population. Chapter 6 examines the rapid growth of new colonies such as the former Thirteen Colonies of the United States of America.
Chapter 7 examines checks on population such as pestilence and famine. Chapter 8 also examines a "probable error" by Wallace "that the difficulty arising from population is at a great distance. Chapters 16 and 17 examine the causes of the wealth of states, including criticisms of Adam Smith and Richard Price.
English wealth is compared with Chinese poverty. Chapters 18 and 19 set out a theodicy to explain the problem of evil in terms of natural theology. This views the world as "a mighty process for awakening matter" in which the Supreme Being acting "according to general laws" created "wants of the body" as "necessary to create exertion" which forms "the reasoning faculty".
In this way, the principle of population would "tend rather to promote, than impede the general purpose of Providence. The 1st edition influenced writers of natural theology such as William Paley and Thomas Chalmers. Following both widespread praise and criticism of his essay, Malthus revised his arguments and recognized other influences: In the course of this enquiry I found that much more had been done than I had been aware of, when I first published the Essay.
The poverty and misery arising from a too rapid increase of population had been distinctly seen, and the most violent remedies proposed, so long ago as the times of Plato and Aristotle.
And of late years the subject has been treated in such a manner by some of the French Economists; occasionally by Montesquieu, and, among our own writers, by Dr. Franklin, Sir James Stewart, Mr. Arthur Young, and Mr. Townsend, as to create a natural surprise that it had not excited more of the public attention. The 2nd edition, published in with Malthus now clearly identified as the author , was entitled " An Essay on the Principle of Population; or, a View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness; with an enquiry into our Prospects respecting the Future Removal or Mitigation of the Evils which it occasions.
Malthus advised that the 2nd edition "may be considered as a new work", [ citation needed ] and the subsequent editions were all minor revisions of the 2nd edition. These were published in , , , and By far the biggest change was in how the 2nd to 6th editions of the essay were structured, and the most copious and detailed evidence that Malthus presented, more than any previous such book on population. Essentially, for the first time, Malthus examined his own Principle of Population on a region-by-region basis of world population.
The essay was organized in four books:. Due in part to the highly influential nature of Malthus' work see main article Thomas Malthus , this approach is regarded as pivotal in establishing the field of demography. The following controversial quote appears in the second edition: A man who is born into a world already possessed, if he cannot get subsistence from his parents on whom he has a just demand, and if the society do not want his labour, has no claim of right to the smallest portion of food, and, in fact, has no business to be where he is.
At nature's mighty feast there is no vacant cover for him. She tells him to be gone, and will quickly execute her own orders, if he does not work upon the compassion of some of her guests. If these guests get up and make room for him, other intruders immediately appear demanding the same favour. The report of a provision for all that come, fills the hall with numerous claimants.
The order and harmony of the feast is disturbed, the plenty that before reigned is changed into scarcity; and the happiness of the guests is destroyed by the spectacle of misery and dependence in every part of the hall, and by the clamorous importunity of those, who are justly enraged at not finding the provision which they had been taught to expect. The guests learn too late their error, in counter-acting those strict orders to all intruders, issued by the great mistress of the feast, who, wishing that all guests should have plenty, and knowing she could not provide for unlimited numbers, humanely refused to admit fresh comers when her table was already full.
Ecologist Professor Garrett Hardin claims that the preceding passage inspired hostile reactions from many critics. The offending passage of Malthus' essay appeared in the 2nd edition only, as Malthus felt obliged to remove it.
From the 2nd edition onwards — in Book IV — Malthus advocated moral restraint as an additional, and voluntary, check on population. This included such measures as sexual abstinence and late marriage. As noted by Professor Robert M. Young, Malthus dropped his chapters on natural theology from the 2nd edition onwards. Also, the essay became less of a personal response to Godwin and Condorcet.
A Summary View on the Principle of Population was published in The author was identified as Rev. Malthus wrote A Summary View for those who did not have the leisure to read the full essay and, as he put it, "to correct some of the misrepresentations which have gone abroad respecting two or three of the most important points of the Essay".
A Summary View ends with a defense of the Principle of Population against the charge that it "impeaches the goodness of the Deity, and is inconsistent with the letter and spirit of the scriptures". See main article Thomas Malthus for more. Malthus became subject to extreme personal criticism. People who knew nothing about his private life criticised him both for having no children and for having too many. In , Shelley , berating Malthus as a priest, called him "a eunuch and a tyrant". In the 20th century an editor of the Everyman edition of Malthus claimed that Malthus had practised population control by begetting eleven girls.
Garrett Hardin provides an overview of such personal comments. The position held by Malthus as professor at the Haileybury training college, to his death in , gave his theories some influence over Britain's administration of India. Concerns about Malthus's theory helped promote the idea of a national population census in the UK.
Government official John Rickman became instrumental in the carrying out of the first modern British census in , under Pitt's administration. In the s Malthus's writings strongly influenced Whig reforms which overturned Tory paternalism and brought in the Poor Law Amendment Act of Malthus convinced most economists that even while high fertility might increase the gross output , it tended to reduce output per capita.
David Ricardo and Alfred Marshall admired Malthus, and so came under his influence. Early converts to his population theory included William Paley. Despite Malthus's opposition to contraception , his work exercised a strong influence on Francis Place — , whose neo-Malthusian movement became the first to advocate contraception.
Place published his Illustrations and Proofs of the Principles of Population in William Godwin criticized Malthus's criticisms of his own arguments in his book On Population Mill considered the criticisms of Malthus made thus far to have been superficial. Carey maintained that the only situation in which the means of subsistence will determine population growth is one in which a given society is not introducing new technologies or not adopting forward-thinking governmental policy, and that population regulated itself in every well-governed society, but its pressure on subsistence characterized the lower stages of civilization.
Another strand of opposition to Malthus's ideas started in the middle of the 19th century with the writings of Friedrich Engels Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy , and Karl Marx Capital ,
An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it affects the future improvement of society with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers.. Anonymously published. Anonymously published.
China is the largest country in the world with a population of 1, ,, people and ranked the third largest in size in the world. In the year the population of China will be about 1,,, The population in china is growing by about 87% a year. China is .
ADVERTISEMENTS: Population Growth: Essay on Population Growth! From sociological point of view – population simply means number of people, living at a particular area (country/region) at a particular time. The current human population growth is something unprecedented in the history of the world. An Essay on the Principle of Population An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers. Thomas Malthus London Printed for J. Johnson, in St. Paul’s Church-Yard
Essay on Population Growth: Its effects and solution Category: Blog On February 13, By Gyan Introduction: The rising population of India is one of the major problems of the country. The Essay on the Principle of Population, which I published in , was suggested, as is expressed in the preface, by a paper in Mr. Godwin’s Inquirer. It was written on the impulse of the occasion, and from the few materials which were then within my reach in a country situation.