Admiral Chuchi Nagumo later learned that the United States Navy most prized possessions, their aircraft carriers were not in port but some carriers were doing training excises while other carriers were stationed else where and others delivering planes to remote Pacific islands.
This was certainly a major downfall in the usefulness of the attack in the Pacific fleet but the attack was to go ahead, December 8th Japanese time which is December 7th the local date in Hawaii.
The conditions were in favor of Japan, apart from the aircraft carriers belong to the United States navy not in port, the weather with the heavy fogged helped provide good coverage over the carriers from overheard reconossinace planes that were out looking for the missing Japanese carriers. All Japanese ships were to remain on radio blackout.
Visibility over Pearl Harbor was clear, and this information was given over the local radio station in Oahu. In the early morning at hours the first launch of aircraft, bombers laden with torpedoes and bombs, flanked by fighter aircraft escorting them they made their 1. The attack on Pearl Harbor came at a great cost to the US but then again this is very debatable. During the two waves of strikes by the Japanese, only lost a total of twenty nine aircraft.
This is a very small price to pay for the huge losses the United States Navy occurred, on that day, December 7th, people were recorded as dead, a further were injured, four battle ships were sunk, the Oklahoma, West Virginia, California and the Nevada. The Tennessee, Pennsylvania and Maryland were damaged but the Maryland was put back into service in February Aircraft lost by the United States were massive as well, with aircraft parked tightly to avoid any sabotage; this made it easier for Japanese bombers.
Out of the planes based, were damaged and only some still able to fly. This attack on Pearl Harbor seemed like a success on the day for the Japanese and my view is that it seemed like this from both sides. The United States suffers a huge loss compared to the minimal loss suffered on the Japanese side. Japan now has put a major dent into the United States Pacific fleet and is able to further their goals down south but my personal view is that the attack created more problems for Japan the solving.
No aircraft carrier was in dock at all, the power of the Pacific fleet is with the might aircraft carriers. It did not sink, damaged or even find any of the aircraft carriers. All of the battle ships that were sunk in Pearl Harbor were raised except the Arizona were repaired and put back into service thus making the United States Navy rely more on their carriers.
From the Japanese point of view, it can only be seen as a success that they were able to sink many battle ships, destroy many aircraft and end the lives of many soldiers at such a small physical price. It is hard to determine whether this attack on this day was one of the biggest mistakes ever made by the Japanese empire, had they sent a third wave to destroy more of the logistics or if the aircraft carriers had been in port it may have changed the outcome of the war.
You can order custom written essays, term papers or research papers on Pearl Harbor at our professional custom writing service. The Attack on Pearl Harbor 2. During the Japanese attack, this center for United States military action in the Pacific Ocean was nearly completely destroyed.
Between the middle of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, Japan looked to transform itself from a closed, feudal society into a modern industrial and military power.
In the early 's, the Japanese army engaged in battles with the Chinese in Manchuria and prevailed. Because of their losses in these battles, Manchuria became a part of the Japanese political system.
In , conflict again began between Japan and China, this time near the Marco Polo bridge in Beijing. This conflict led to a full-scale war known today as the Sino-Japanese War, which was one of the bloodiest in history and lasted until the defeat of Japan in These successes included the defeats of Poland, France and England.
Many European nations that Germany now controlled had control of important colonial empires; the East Indies and Singapore in Southeast Asia. These empires were of interest to Japan because they had the natural resources oil, coal, rubber and tin that Japan desperately neaded. Japan began their expansion with the seizure of Indochina in mid Roosevelt was in strict opposition, but many others in America wanted to leave the situation alone.
So the United States provided materials to countries who were at war with Germany and Japan, but tried to stay neutral and prevent war. This was not effective, however and President Roosevelt created an embargo on the shipment of oil to Japan.
Without this critical resource, Japan's industrial and military forces would quickly come to a halt, so they viewed the embargo as an act of war. Things were beginning to look worse for the United States. Officials in the United States tried to come to a resolve with Japan over their differences. Japan wanted America to lift the embargo and allow them to take over China.
The United States refused to do either, and saw Japan's refusal to budge on their stance as a sign of hostility. Because of neither nation's willingness to compromise, it seemed that war was now inevitable. The most powerful and important part of the United States' defense in the Pacific Ocean was the Pacific Fleet, which was usually on the west coast but made a training cruise to Hawaii every year.
Because of the overshadow of war at the time of its training cruise in , the fleet was moved to Pearl Harbor naval base. This was a perfect location because it was halfway between the U. However, this plan was seriously altered because of the increasing activity in Italy and Japan's attempts to expand in Southeast Asia.
President Roosevelt's theory was that the presence of United States forces in Hawaii would deter any Japanese attempt at a strike on American forces. Richardson of the Pacific Fleet was in complete opposition to the proposed long stay at Pearl Harbor. However, when Admiral Stark suggested to him the idea of anti-torpedo nets, after British torpedo bombers launched an attack on Taranto Harbor in Italy, he thought they were neither practical nor necessary.
Unfortunately, all of Richardson's protests and meetings with the president only got him dismissed and in February of he was officially replaced by Admiral Husband E. Kimmel also didn't like the idea of his fleet in Pearl Harbor, but kept his objections to himself after seeing what had happened to Richardson. The Pacific Fleet was to be used as a defensive measure to direct Japan's attention away from Southeast Asia by:.
Because of the United States' presence in the Pacific, Japanese Admiral Yamamoto, commander-in-chief of his country's Combined Fleet needed to be careful of his positions there. If he allowed his forces to be too concentrated, the mainland was susceptible to and attack from a European nation or America.
Yamamoto created a plan which involved a strong opening blow to the U. Pacific Fleet, and offensive attacks against the British, U. His main purpose was to cripple the United States while he quickly gathered the natural resources of Southeast Asia. He hoped that his opening attack would demoralize American forces and require us to sign a peace settlement, thus allowing Japan to remain as the strongest power in the Pacific. Only one month after the British attack on Taranto Harbor, Yamamoto reasoned that if war was inevitable with the United States he would launch a carrier attack on Pearl Harbor.
In January of , Yamamoto began to commit to his strategy, planning the attack and showing it to other Japanese officials. He developed eight guidelines for the attack, and they are as follows:. General staff members were in opposition to the attack but continued preparations despite their knowledge that the attack would be difficult.
Secrecy and surprise were the two most important elements to the success of the Japanese plan. However, the flow of information around the Japanese Imperial Naval staff was not completely secure.
On January 27, Joseph C. Grew, the United States Ambassador to Japan wired Washington that he had discovered information that Japan, in the event of problems with the United States, would plan a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. Unfortunately, no one in Washington believed this information, but if someone had, it is possible that the terrible attack could have been prevented.
During this time period, American intelligence officers continued to monitor secret Japanese messages. American scientists had previously developed a machine, whose code name was "magic," that gave intelligence officers the ability to read top secret Japanese message traffic. Japanese consular traffic was also intercepted, which provided the United States with even more important information.
Although America had enough essential information to paint itself a crystal-clear picture of Japanese intentions, there was an internal struggle between the Office of Naval Intelligence and the War Plans Division, and the information was lost in the shuffle.
In Japan, Admiral Nomura informed his superiors that he thought Americans were reading his message traffic, but no one believed him and their code was not changed.
In addition to listening in on Japanese message traffic, the United States also knew that Hawaii was full of Japanese intelligence officers. Because of our constitutional rights however, very little could be done. One such spy was Takeo Yoshikawa. Yoshikawa was a Japanese naval reserve ensign. He retired after only two years of service, then contemplated suicide. The navy offered him a job with its general staff's intelligence division, and over the next four years Yoshikawa studied English as well as the Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor.
Wisely, he did not overuse any one observation post or method as he carefully watched goings on in Pearl Harbor and Hickam Airfield. He used many different costumes during his spying years, but never illegally entered military bases or stole confidential documents.
Due to American openness, he received nearly all the information he needed by legal methods. He turned out to be one of the best sources of information for the Japanese military, but at the end of his career received neither honors nor pension, and was left asking, "Why has history cheated me? As the United States began to fear more and more the Japanese attack, they increased peace negotiations, which occurred up until about November 27, At this time negotiations completely halted and United States troops were put on high alert.
Late the same day American intelligence officers decoded thirteen parts of a fourteen part message which brought forth the possibility of a Japanese attack. One hour later a Japanese message was decoded, instructing their embassy to deliver the same part message at 1: Upon receiving this message, Washington sent a commercial telegraph to Pearl Harbor because communications were down.
However, this message was not received until noon Hawaiian time, three hours after the bombing had been completed. At this time, Pearl Harbor was not on a state of high alert. Senior commanders had concluded that there was no reason to believe an attack in the near future is inevitable.
For this reason, aircraft were left parked wingtip to wingtip on airfields, anti-aircraft guns remained unmanned, and many ammunition boxes stayed locked in storage in accordance with American peacetime regulations. There were no torpedo nets protecting the Pacific Fleet anchorage. Because the 7th of December was a Sunday and it was early in the morning, most officers and crewmen were leisurely ashore.
The Americans were taken completely by surprise by the attack. The attacking Japanese planes came in two waves, the first of which took off from carriers located miles north of Oahu around 6: This wave consisted of fighters, bombers and torpedo planes.
The previous night, about 10 miles outside the entrance to Pearl Harbor, five midget submarines were launched, each carrying two men and two torpedoes. It was their mission to remain submerged and once the attack got underway, cause as much damage as possible.
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On December 7th, , Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese air force relentlessly. On that horrible day over Americans died because of that attack, and even more were injured. This cowardly attack on Pearl Harbor angered the U.S.A. and immediately brought us into the war.
Introduction "December 7, , a day that will live in infamy." Those words, uttered by President Franklin D. Roosevelt after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, changed the course of American history. Pearl Harbor - Introduction At approximately 8 o’clock in the morning on the 7th of Dec , the United States of America faced for the first time in history, an attack on US soil. The Empire of Japan had strategically planned and executed a swift blow to the state of Hawaii, located in the mid-Pacific Ocean.
The essay starts by examining the events that led up to the attack on Pearl Harbor. Then, it will lead into the attack on Pearl Harbor itself. From there, the essay will examine the internment of the Japanese Americans in Essay Pearl Harbor Words | 5 Pages. Roosevelt. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor Roosevelt asked congress to declare war on Japan. Pearl Harbor was a surprise to the United States, a great plan to the Japanese Empire, and a gateway to World War II. The attack on Pearl Harbor took a toll on countries all over the world.