This is quite the reasoning that we may finally come to as we deal with the human rights file in Lebanon. However, it seems that the civil war is blamed for almost every evil even that takes place in Lebanon. Violation of human rights have to a great extent been encouraged and enhanced due to the war, but it is also evident that there are a number of factors that have contributed to this problem.
Human rights violation in Lebanon has existed long before the war. The Civil war, as well as other factors which may have social origins may also be involved, a reality which many Lebanese may refuse to believe. The human rights issue has recently gained a lot of attention in Lebanon. Limitations are yet found, both politically and socially, and it would take a long time accompanied with effort before Lebanon earns satisfactory marks on its civil rights report.
The research question is why human rights violations are taking place in Lebanon. Violation of human rights in Lebanon has its origins rooted in the Lebanese society. Even though Lebanon is the most open Arab society to the west, it remains a patriarchal society where all power is in the hands of the father. The Lebanese father retains an image of the dominant male who exercises his right to control his wife and children.
Similarly, higher authorities such as the traditional leaders of religious and political institutions and groups in society, exercise this patriarchal role over their subjects.
This particular build-up of society gives the holders of power a dominant ability to control and manipulate those who are below them in the social hierarchy. Consequently, abuse of those who are in a lower status by those who are in an upper status is not convicted, but rather seen as a necessity in many cases in order to establish the order of society. The fact that the father has the right to beat his children or wife to protect the social order inside the family is considered a right, and it is not objected to by social norms and standards.
This state is projected onto society in general, where the patriarchal institutions, the state in this case, sees that it has the right to control and dominate its citizens according to the same social norm which governs the family. This relationship gives the state, especially its security forces including the army, police and others, the right to use every means in interrogating subjects, even if this involves the use of force. Rarely have there been objections to the use of force, which is an explicit violation of human rights in Lebanon.
Usually, the public express their acceptance, and in the best cases their fears when they refer to these violations. Besides, the long period of war came to enhance the role of force as the best means to resolve conflicts and to put an end to problems. For fifteen years of natural law in the country, the Lebanese public in general came to a common acceptance of the fact that might makes right. Individuals and groups alike, from different political, religious and social backgrounds had their powerful references to support them in the face of their enemies.
Lack of civilized means of confrontation contributed to complicating the relationships among the Lebanese and oppression became a major means of social interaction, creating classifications in society such as the strong and the weak, the supported and the non-supported. These realities indirectly contribute to the development of a negative attitude towards human rights.
The end of war was a social shock to the Lebanese society. People came to discover that they were no longer able to use force against each other, but violence continued indirectly, especially through the state. In the years that preceded the war, the Lebanese state earned its reputation for being firm with law violations, but it only achieved this reputation through violation of human rights during interrogating suspects and inside its prisons.
After , the state was still weak, and the major challenge was how to impose its image as a powerful state that can protect its constitution and laws. This was to be attained through a powerful spread of armed forces and through firm dealing with law violators and suspects of sabotage or political conspirators.
This was publicly accepted, especially as the Lebanese public were contended with the fact that law and order were returning. To the average Lebanese, a powerful state was indispensable, and since violence had become more deeply rooted inside the social thinking of the community due to the war and the traditional social structure, it was inevitable that human rights violations by the state were acceptable.
Consequently, as hypothesized, human rights violations have been rooted in the Lebanese society due to the long years of civil war.
Political hegemony of Israel is a major cause for ignoring human rights violations in South Lebanon. In , Israel invaded Lebanon, but this was not the first Israeli violation against the Lebanese territories and population.
Since , warfare in the South, especially between the PLO and Israeli forces contributed to limited violations that included bombarding villages, captivating individuals who were suspected of supporting the PLO guerrillas and in most cases the destruction of agricultural land. During the war, these violations increased as warfare in the South increased, and as Israeli forces became under more guerrilla attacks.
The villages of the South were a daily stage for bombardment and destruction, especially those which were on the periphery, falling on the fire lines between the two sides. By the end of the war, confrontation between Hizbullah and Israel had reached more radical levels, especially that Hizbullah had become popularly accepted in the Southern villages.
The account of human rights violations against Southern villagers is humiliating to mankind, especially that these violations are committed by armed forces against civilians. The most frequent scenario in areas such as Nabatiyyeh, Jabsheet, Sharkieyyeh, Dweir, Habboush, Kfar Hatta and more than seventy other villages includes air raids in the early morning but which rarely involve any bombardment. This scenario changes in the afternoons as artillery shelling reaches the sides of these villages, and aiming at terrorizing the civil population.
The goal of these raids and shelling is to keep the population alert and to prevent them from acquiring any feelings of security. Most of these raids are for psychological causes, to keep the civilians under a general feeling of fear and insecurity, and to exert pressure on the presence of Hizbullah warriors inside these villages. Yet, these violations have turned into actual warfare on more than one occasion since In July , the Seven Day War was launched on more than one hundred villages in the South, and reached the cities of Tyre and Sidon, in which a number of civilians were killed and injured, in addition to the shelling of densely populated areas.
In response, public authorities must regain control of organized violence. This means a re-establishment of the rule of law and a rebuilding of trust in public authorities. In addition, more inclusive, democratic values are needed to defuse exclusivist ideals.
These human rights norms are central to the maintenance of civil society, and necessary for grounding attitudes of tolerance and mutual respect within communities.
Serious difficulties arise, however, when those in power are responsible for human rights violations. In this case, outside intervention is necessary to stop the abuse. There is much disagreement about when and to what extent outside countries can engage in humanitarian intervention. More specifically, there is debate about the efficacy of using military force to protect the human rights of individuals in other nations. This sort of debate stems largely from a tension between state sovereignty and the rights of individuals.
Some defend the principles of state sovereignty and nonintervention, and argue that other states must be permitted to determine their own course. It is thought that states have diverse conceptions of justice, and international coexistence depends on a pluralist ethic whereby each state can uphold its own conception of the good.
Among many, there is "a profound skepticism about the possibilities of realizing notions of universal justice. In addition, requiring some country to respect human rights is liable to cause friction and can lead to far-reaching disagreements. Others think, "Only the vigilant eye of the international community can ensure the proper observance of international standards, in the interest not of one state or another but of the individuals themselves.
Certain rights are inalienable and universal, and "taking basic rights seriously means taking responsibility for their protection everywhere. In addition, it is thought that political systems that protect human rights reduce the threat of world conflict.
Nevertheless, governments are often reluctant to commit military forces and resources to defend human rights in other states.
Lastly, there is a need to ensure that intervention is legitimate, and motivated by genuine humanitarian concerns. The purposes of intervention must be apolitical and disinterested. However, if risks and costs of intervention are high, it is unlikely that states will intervene unless their direct interests are involved. Many note that in order to truly address human rights violations, we must strive to understand the underlying causes of these breaches. These causes have to do with underdevelopment, economic pressures, various social problems, and international conditions.
It is only by understanding and ameliorating these root causes and strengthening civil society that we can truly protect human rights. The Responsibility to Protect: International Development Research Centre, , Temple University Press, , Forced Disappearances, Torture, and Summary Executions.
Use the following to cite this article: Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Check out our Quick Start Guide. Don't miss upcoming posts, signup for the Newsletter. Find out what you can do to help society more constructively handle the intractable conflicts that are making so many problems insoluble. A free and open online seminar that takes a complexity-oriented approach to frontier-of-the-field issues related to intractable conflict. Explanations of how the conflict and peacebuilding fields' fundamental building blocks can help with both intractable and tractable conflicts.
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The Supreme Court of India with liberal interpretation and through the literal use of the P. The scope of right to equality and the right to life and personal liberty have caused wider areas like right to speedy trial, free legal aid, right to live with dignity, right to earn livelihood, right to education, housing, medical care, clean environment, right against fortune, sexual harassment, solitary confinement, bondage, servitude exploitation and the like.
By democratizing access to justice through P. By judicial-monitoring of State-run Institutions like Jails, Reformatory homes, juvenile homes, mental asylums, Police Station and the like. Chief Justice of India as its first Chairperson. Ananda is leading the NHRC at present. It has five members, of whom one must be a judge of the Supreme Court, another must be a Chief Justice of a State High Court, and two others must be chosen from among persons having knowledge of or practical experience in matters relating to Human Rights.
The Chairperson and other members of the Commission shall hold office for a period of five years or till they attain the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
The Commission enjoys autonomy from the method of appointment of its members, their fixity of tenure and other statutory guarantees so assured to them. The Commission also enjoys financial autonomy. The Chairperson and the members of the Commission are removed from office by the President on the grounds of proved misbehaviour and in capacity on an inquiry conducted by the Supreme Court.
The Commission has its own investigating staff to investigate into complaints of human rights violation. It can also make use of the services of any officer of investigating agency of the Central or State Government. A retired State Chief Secretary Sr. SM Patnaik has been taken as one of its members. While conducting inquiry into the complaints received by the Commission, it shall enjoy all powers of Civil Court trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure, The Commission can summon and enforce the attendance of witnesses, receive evidences on affidavits, requisition any public record, produce any document and issue Commissions for examination of any witness.
It may also hold its own inquiry, if no response is received from the concerned Government and Authority. After the inquiry is completed, the Commission may take any of the following appropriate steps: It is clear that the NHRC enjoys no power to take any binding decision. It has to depend on other agencies like the Supreme Court or High Courts, or concerned Central and State Governments to enforce its recommendation.
The Commission also faces several limitations. It has made Commendable work in matters like Police and Prison reforms, improvement of Juvenile Homes. Problems of refugees and emigrants and Kidnap victimization. The Commission in the SLP has sought further investigation by an independent agency and has sprayed for setting aside the impugned judgement in the Best Bakery Case.
The Times of India, August 1, The Sardarpura Case relates to the asphyxiated death of 33 people in a room in Sardarpura Village in Mehsana distinct. In the Golbarga society case, 39 people including Ex-MP. Ehsan Jafri were killed. The TOI, August 9, Here the role of the NHC has strengthened the cause of protection of human rights against arbitrary violation and miscarriage of justice, if only.
Human rights were always violated in human history. The leaders mostly oppressed people and did not grant their entitled human rights. Even religious leader in some cases were responsible for the .
- Human Rights Violations in Afghanistan Since the departure of the Soviets from Afghanistan basic human rights of the Afghanistanis have not just been trampled on but summarily done away with. After .
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Abuse of human rights often leads to conflict, and conflict typically results in human rights violations. It is not surprising, then, that human rights abuses are often at the center of wars and that protection of human rights is central to conflict resolution.. Every human being has certain rights that should be protected, should being the key word. These rights are being violated every day throughout the world. Human beings aren't being treated like human beings, and these injustices need to stop. Countries which have problems with human rights are /5(11).