It was here that Siddharta attained a knowledge of the way things really are; it was through this knowledge that he acquired the title 'Buddha' meaning 'awakened one'.
This awakening was achieved during a night of meditation, which passed through various stages. In the first stage he saw each of his previous existences. In the second he surveyed the death and rebirth of all living beings and understood the law that governs the cycle of birth and death. In the third he identified the four noble truths: This final point is called the Noble Eightfold Path, this being eight steps consisting of wisdom right views, right intention ethics right speech, right action, right livelihood , mental discipline right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration , which ultimately lead to liberation from the source of suffering.
Although initially hesitant to share his insight on the grounds that humanity might not be ready for such a teaching, the Buddha decided to communicate his discovery to those willing to listen. His first converts were the five ascetics with whom he had lived when he himself followed the lifestyle of the ascetic. Out of this small group the community of monks or sangha grew to about sixty in size and included Buddha's cousin, Ananda, and his son, Rahula. Later the Buddha was persuaded by his step-mother and cousin to accept women into the sangha.
The remaining forty-five years of the Buddha's life were spent journeying around the plain of the Ganges, teaching and receiving visitors. At the age of 79 the Buddha fell seriously ill and died. During his life the Buddha had taught that no one was to succeed him as leader of the Sangha. Instead, his followers were to take his teaching and rule as their sole guides.
A second council, which is said to have taken place a century after the Buddha's death, took place at Vaisali. The purpose of this council was to consider allegations that certain monks at Vaisali permitted ten practices that contravened the rules of conduct of the Vinaya.
The Vaisali Council condemned these practices, after which the Council was closed. At some point following the Second Council the Sangha divided into two traditions: The difference between the two traditions seems to relate to their perception of the status of the lay person and the status of the arhant. Whereas the Mahasanghikas were more open to the laity practising Buddhism and tended to believe that the lay person was capable of becoming an arhant, the Sthaviravadins believed that monastic life alone could lead to arahantship and, therefore, nirvana.
Sometime in the 3rd century B. The name "Sarvastivadin" is believed to derive from the phrase sarva asti everything exists. The Sarvastivadins taught that the dharmas, the most basic elements of existence, exist in the past, present and future which are simply modes of being. The growth of this movement led King Asoka, of the Maurya dynasty, to call the third Buddhist Council at Pataliputra c. This decision prompted some of them to emigrate to north India and establish a center in Kashmir where they survived for about a thousand years.
Another group that emerged in the 3rd century B. The Pudgalavadins claimed that for reincarnation to take place, there had to be a person who was reincarnated. This view was criticised by other Buddhist sects who said that Pudgalavadin teaching implied the reality of a self and, therefore, contradicted the basic Buddhist teaching of anatman no self.
Those Sthaviravadins who did not accept the doctrines of either the Sarvastivadins or the Pudgalavadins came to be called Vibhajyadins 'Distinctionists'.
This group formed a number of branches, of which the largest and most important were the Theravadins of Ceylon. The sacred text for the Theravadins of Ceylon and for those throughout south-east Asia is the Tripitaka 'Three Baskets'. These three baskets consist of the Vinaya Pitaka rules for monks and nuns , the Sutta Pitaka the discourses given by the Buddha and the Abhidhamma Pitaka the systematic ordering and analysis of Buddhist doctrine.
Accompanying the Tripitaka was a large body of commentarial literature explaining in detail the meaning of particular sutras. The movement associated with these texts came over time to call itself the Mahayana 'Great Vehicle' in contrast to non-Mahayana schools which were pejoratively named Hinayana 'Lesser Vehicle'.
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Buddhism Classified as one of the largest religions in the world, Buddhism is heavily concentrated in the Indian subcontinent. Founded by Buddha, one must achieve their own spiritual awakening, or nirvana, through meditation and ethical living.
Mar 25, · Buddhism Essay Words | 9 Pages Buddhism Works Cited Missing Buddhism is the religion of about one eighth of the world's people (Gaer 27).
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. The religious philosophy of Buddhism is contained in the first sermon of Buddha at Sarnath, near Varanasi. The essence of Buddhism is contained in Gautama Buddha’s teachings which consist of Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. - Buddhism Buddhism, like most other religions, originated in a particular place at a particular time, and its roots are in forms and ideas that were part of the environment in which it developed. The most important of these areas at the time of the Buddha was the valley of the Ganges river which flows from west to east across most of northern India.
Buddhism Breaks Apart Essay - Buddhism Breaks Apart Buddhism is the religion of spiritual enlightenment through the suppressing of one’s worldly desires. Buddhism takes one on the path of a spiritual journey, to become one with their soul. It teaches . Buddhism Essay Words | 8 Pages. Buddhism According to Webster's definition, Buddhism is not a religion. It states that religion is the "belief in or worship of God or gods"(Webster's New World Dictionary pg). "The Buddha was not a god"(About Buddhism pg.1).