But ii can manifest itself in both positive and negative way. It is said to be positive when the situation offers an opportunity for one, to gain something. It is often viewed as motivator, since in its absence the individual lacks the spirit necessary for peak performance. Distress is the term used to indicate negative stress. Almost any change in the environment- even a pleasant change such as a joyful trip- demands some coping, and a little stress is useful in helping us to adapt.
What acts to produce distress varies from person to person, but some events seem to be stressors for every person. Injury or infections of the body, dangers in environment, major changes or transitions in life which force us to cope in new ways. The physical, environmental and social causes of the stress state are termed stressors.
Once induced by stressors the internal stress state can then lead to various responses. On the other hand, psychological responses such as anxiety, hopelessness, depression, irritability, and a general feeling of not being able to cope with the world, can result from the stress state.
Stress has a number of immediate effects. If the stressors are maintained, long-term behavioural, physiological, emotional and cognitive effects occur.
Example, a patient spends more money on treatment, may experience continued stress even after the cure of the disease, because repayment of debt cause stress for long time in him or a patient whose leg is amputated after accident may continue to worry about it. On the other hand, many people have developed ways of coping with stressors, so that they are able to respond adaptively. Teaching people adaptive ways of handling stress, so as to promote the wellness cycle is an important part of the newly emerging field of behavioural medicine.
Stress is not always harmful. In fact, it is recognised that low levels of stress can even helps for better performance. For example, a student can prepare well for forthcoming examination only if he has some stress.
However, excess level of stress is undoubtedly harmful. Commonly appearing stress related bodily disorders are-peptic ulcers, hypertension, chronic fatigue, hormonal changes, increased heart rate, difficulty in breathing, numbness of limbs, heart disease and reduction in immunity, etc. Anxiety, depression, hopelessness, helplessness, anger, nervousness, irritability, tension and boredom may be experienced.
Decreasing efficiency, making mistakes, inability to take decisions, under eating or overeating, sleeplessness, increased smoking, develop addiction to alcohol and drugs, forgetfulness, hypersensitivity or passiveness, accident proneness and interpersonal difficulties are seen. Stress is linked to disorders such as cancer and heart disorders. There are several mediating variables that determine whether stress becomes dangerous or not. For example, good coping mechanisms which can help to reduce stress, having good social support, often help in reducing stress.
Perception of stress or how a person views stress is also very important. For example, a person may not perceive a situation as stressful whereas the same situation may be perceived as highly stressful by some other person. Personality character like hardiness or emotional stability helps to withstand effects of stress. Stress occurs when there is an imbalance between the way a person perceives the demand imposed and the ability to cope with the demand Odgen These physiological processes of stress can determine whether or not the presenting problem, such as hypertension, is a symptom of stress or another health concern, once the patient has been reassured by the healthcare professional, this must be considered vital as part of the nursing assessment McNally, M.
When a person is stressed for a considerable amount of time their immune system does not work as well as it should, hence they are susceptible to frequent colds and infections than they would have been previously Bierma, P. During a stress response the heart shoots into overdrive so it can pump much faster to ensure that the organs around the body can receive adequate amounts of blood and oxygen.
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells of the heart exhibit specific responses to sudden changes in their environment because of stress. The ability of these cells to accelerate into a new environment is the integral driving force for adaptive modification of cells Das, D. Much like stress is meant to be, these changes are short-lived and reversible, and if stress were to be a long term process it could lead to the permanent alteration in the pattern of gene expression of a person.
This process has shown that condition of the heart by repeated ischemia and reperfusion of stress, can delay the onset of further injury like ventricular arrhythmias Das, D. During the stress response, the person begins to breathe faster to meet oxygen demand and the digestive system and sensory organs slow down and diminish their blood supply to organs that need it more at the time, such as the brain Boyle, R.
This could possibly have a negative effect on the glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus which is responsible for long-term or declarative memory when the person is fully developed Sapolsky, R. The glucocorticoid receptors prevent the production of CRH in the hypothalamus and thus dampen the stress response Leutwyler, K. When a person is under stress for a length of time the glucocorticoids, Cortisol and Catecholamimes encourage glycogenolysis and lipid and amino acid catabolism in liver, which is why people lose weight when under stress Thompson, V.
Ketones are produced and released into blood circulation which promotes glucose release by liver into bloodstream, increasing the blood glucose level Prevention, , which must be considered when a patient is admitted into hospital so a false diagnosis is not made. The glucocorticoids provoke an increase in glycogen and protein breakdown in skeletal muscle and amino acid release. Many physiological stressors such as injury to the body and inflammation, illness, pain and hot cold temperatures and even the aging process could have this effect on people McKay, L.
Stressors are not necessarily life threating, however mild to chronic social stressors can lead to bursts of increased blood pressure which can cause structural thickening of the blood vessel wall and neuroendocrine changes, leading to further blood pressure increase which in turn could lead to heart disease Chrousos, There have been studies carried out to test the effectiveness of interventions to try and dampen physiological symptoms of stress on clinically stressed patients, were examined and it proved to be a positive result that music, as a non-pharmacological intervention on the physiological stress response and the anxiety level, was effective Han L, Stress management could be a possible treatment course, if this proved to be unsuccessful; the patient should really consider other treatment options like anxiety control Mayo Clinic, Although research has shown to have a link between psychological problems and stress, the evidence behind this connection has not been clarified, Walonick, D, S.
There are typical psychological symptoms such as impatience, irritation, anger, aggressiveness, frustration, insecurity, distress, worry, tearful, lack of interest in appearance Ogden, , that a person goes through when they are affected by stress over a period of time. We as nurses must be vigilant as to these changes among patients so that we can provide biopsychosocial care to address the problem as quickly as possible before it could become a larger issue McNally, M.
They have found reasons to believe that people with stress disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD have alterations in their brain activity in comparison to those without Badaruddin, A. Topics such as violence, abuse, be it physical, sexual, emotional or neglect and also divorce or conflict amongst parents seem to be the most frequent occurrences causing stress ton children Cicchetti Psychological effects of abuse include higher levels of general stress than others and also major psychological disorders including personality disturbances, provocative behaviours and the avoidance of intimacy within close relationships Siegal, S.
Furthermore, there is evidence that stressful life events are common ground for the onset of depression Monroe, S. It has been found that a diagnosis of a major medical illness, such as diabetes for example, is often considered a severe life stressor and often is accompanied by high rates of depression Blaug, B.
The link between stress and depression is complex and confusing. People who are stressed often neglect healthy lifestyle practices like eating well, exercising, regular sleeping patterns and smoke or drink more than normal Bruno, K.
Cognitive behavioural therapy CBT is a non-pharmacologic means of therapy often employed to relieve depression.
In conclusion, stress has an advantages and disadvantages. If people will handle stress effectively this can provide a lot of advantages to people. But if people will not handle stress effectively this may lead a lot problem to people.
BUY STRESS MANAGEMENT ESSAY PAPER ONLINEThesis statement:Because of the need to improve our daily functioning through the mitigation of stress, there is need to understand what stress .
Apr 10, · In conclusion, stress is one of the human nature that every one express. Moreover, every one can chooses his way to reduce his stress. I preferred using music and running and reading, because I truly believe that my points are the best choice for me to reduce my stress. "Conclusion Of Stress In College" Essays and Research Papers Conclusion Of Stress In College College stress Recently, many first-year college students face to stress.
Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can view samples of our professional work here. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do. However, I know you should restate your main idea in the conclusion, and then add something extra. Example: If you are writing an essay about stress management techniques, in the BODY of the essay, you can give examples like this: a recent study suggests that .