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We provide excellent and prompt academic writing assistance by offering high quality, plagiarism-free essays. Receive a well-written paper with no stress or academic routine! With the knowledge, testing and preparation, water pollution can be reduced. It does not take much effort — just a little thought. Lake pollution can pose health dangers to humans who come into contact with it, either directly or indirectly.
The risk of your health being negatively impacted by polluted drinking water in a developed country is small in comparison with developing countries. However, it is possible to become ill from contaminated water. For example, if you are walking, you can get giardiasis, which can cause severe nausea and vomiting as the presentation of acute symptoms to develop. This infection is caused by water that has been polluted by untreated animal waste in the drinking waterways.
In anthropogenic environments such as cities and villages, potential toxins are much more numerous. Another high risk of lake pollution is Mercury contamination. Mercury has been found to interfere with the development of the central nervous system in fetuses and young children, which could potentially lead to a large amount of long-term side effects. Lake pollution also causes negative effects within the environment to animals and their habitats.
The entry of pollutants in lakes has a wide range of effects. It is possible for pollutants, to change the water temperature enough to fish force in search of colder waters. This can even create an ecological dead zone. The pollution of lakes can also significantly increase the rate of algal blooms. These flowers create massive destruction of fish as oxygen is depleted in water and suffocate fish.
Fish can be killed, even if excessive algae get caught in their gills. To maintain a high water quality the lake requires a maintenance plan. Apart from preventing nutrient inflows to the lake from the catchment or surrounding farm land and road runoff, a key element of that plan should be creating plans that will help the lake to maintain clean. Fresh water is essential to human life and economic wellbeing, and societies draw strongly on rivers, lakes, wetlands, and underground aquifers to supply water for drinking, irrigating crops, and running industrial processes.
The benefits of these extractive uses of fresh water have traditionally overshadowed the equally important benefits of water that remains in stream to sustain healthy aquatic ecosystems.
There is growing recognition that functionally intact and biologically complex freshwater ecosystems provide many economically valuable commodities and services to society.
Lakes provide people with many services: Lake degradation results from excessive nutrient inputs, toxic substances, habitat loss, overfishing, species invasions and extirpations. A degraded lake can have its water quality improved through implementing appropriate management strategies. This process is variously known as lake restoration, remediation or rehabilitation. It is important to recognize that the restoration program will take time and will not return the lake to a once untouched condition that it may have had earlier in its life, but it could improve the water quality to meet a specified water quality goal.
The ability to achieve that goal for a specific degraded lake will be determined by the nutrient budget internal versus external loads , how well the in-lake processes are known, the degree of restoration required to achieve the goal and the funding available to implement the management strategies required to achieve that degree of restoration. Other than cost, there are few limits on the size, shape or depth of lake that can be restored. Consequently, the expectation of restoration needs to be tempered with the knowledge that the lake may never reach its original state and that the objective of a restoration project will be to rehabilitate the lake to improve the water quality and lake conditions to an achievable level.
This rehabilitation level then becomes a management goal. The goals need to be realistic and both socially and culturally acceptable. Restoring a degraded lake to a new desirable condition is an adaptive management process which must include a monitoring program to assess the success of management strategies employed to reach that goal, and the flexibility to adapt the management strategies based on those monitoring results.
The issues, goals and measures of success can be filled in and additional sections listing the tools to be used can be added. The role of the environmental consultant at key points indicated by red arrows is optional depending on the competence of the lake manager and the size of the lake. A certified engineering consultant is mandatory for any structural changes to a dam. To reduce the abundance of aquatic macrophysics in the lake to enable unimpeded use of the lake for contact recreation, and.
These goals are essential to restoring of the lake. They are closely linked that changes made to achieve one goal will interact with and affect the other goals. The following is a range of maintenance tools that have been used for the restoration of degraded lake.
The weight of evidence indicates that the key to restoring the water quality of lake and its fishery is the management of the lake weed. There are four approaches to this issue:. Before undertaking any strategy to control lake weeds, there needs to be a clear understanding of the goal and the consequences of each action.
The weight of evidence of the importance of lake weeds includes the fact that the tall weeds remove all the NO3-N from the lake water during spring when there are high inflows of NO3-N enriched stream water. This evidence also suggests that under low flows the weeds become N-limited and, being unable to sustain the amount of biomass with the nutrients available, they senesce releasing the nutrients in the plants back into the water.
Waste water treatment uses holding ponds and wetlands for reducing the nutrient load before the water is released into an open waterway. The main disadvantages of the technique are that,.
Floating treatment wetlands FTW are a new restoration concept where emergent wetland plants are grown in buoyant rafts which are moored in a lake or stream. These rafts are constructed from recycled plastic PET drink bottles in various sized sections that could be 2 m by 3 m for ease of handling and joined together later. The plants are grown in recesses in the raft and their roots extend down into the water where they assimilate the N and P.
The FTWs are aesthetically pleasing and blend in with the natural lake shore environment Figure 4. Onshore management to reduce nutrient inputs to the lake should look at the sources of those nutrients. However, because the lag time between the contamination of the groundwater and that contaminated groundwater reaching the lake, nutrient stripping of the groundwater at the lake edge is also essential.
This is best achieved using marginal wetland buffer zones Figure 4. The surface or unconfined groundwater aquifer is the most vulnerable to contamination in the catchment as it receives the infiltrating rainwater percolating down through the soil.
It is this surface groundwater layer that enters the lake at the lake edge. Both of these options dissipate the energy of the storm water inflow so that it does not move out into the body of the lake. Dispersing the flow behind the riparian buffer zone will cause all the sediment to remain on shore and the nutrients in the storm water to be assimilated by the buffer zone plants.
A stream diversion channel is a temporary practice to convey stream flow in an environmentally safe manner around or through a construction site while a permanent structure or conveyance is being installed in the stream channel. A simple expedient in small lakes overseas is to divert a proportion of a clean stream or river through the lake to reduce the residence time and thus flush the N and P in solution and in particulates, such as algae, down the outlet stream.
An in-depth analysis of the water quality of the source water would be needed if this option was a serious consideration. This technique requires manipulation of the weir on the lake to increase and decrease the lake water level at different times of the year to take advantage of specific parts of the lake cycle. Seasonal changes in water level are potentially good for fisheries with the most productive fisheries having low water levels in summer J.
Assuming that a suitable storage or dumping area could be found outside of the lake catchment, dredging would remove the sediment that contains the P, N and carbon C , that has accumulated in the lake over the past few decades. It would also remove the seed bank for lake weeds. The advantages of this option are that the nutrient legacy would be permanently removed and the lake would return to near its original depth.
The disadvantages of this option are the cost to remove the estimated 3 km3 of sediment, the destruction of the existing ecosystem, and the release of nutrients and other toxic chemicals such as Sulphides during the process of dredging. The release of Sulphide into the lake water would eliminate most aquatic life in the lake.
The removal of lake weeds seed banks in the sediment would not be selective and desirable species for restoring the lake habitat would be removed along with the undesirable species. Aeration replaces the oxygen consumed by decomposition processes and prevents the development of anoxic conditions which allow P release from the sediments. This technique is often used in water supply reservoirs to prevent the anoxic release of P, which favors cyanobacteria growth, and the release of minerals such as iron and manganese, which would stain baths, toilets and hand basins in homes and would cause black marks on washing as the water re-oxygenates and these metals precipitate.
The advantages of the technique is that it is relatively cheap, requiring an air compressor, connection hoses and an aeration bar with anchor blocks, and only needs to run in summer when low oxygen concentrations develop. In shallow lakes, giant discs pulled through the lake sediments open up the sediment allowing deep penetration of oxygen from the water column.
The concept behind this tool is that the P will be bound to the iron and manganese oxides in the sediment. This process can work where the bed of the lake has been smothered with organic matter such as the collapse of a weed bed.
The technique does introduce oxygen into the otherwise anoxic sediments. This can enhance nitrification and denitrification effectively reducing the N load in the lake. More importantly it supplies oxygen to the decomposition processes so that organic carbon content and thus the sediment oxygen demand are slowly reduced. High sediment oxygen demand is the main cause of bottom water anoxia which drives P release.
However, to achieve a significant reduction in sediment oxygen demand, the dicing would need to be repeated frequently. There are three major disadvantage of dicing through weed beds:. The advantages of this technique are that the release of P is reduced and thus the dominant algal species are not cyanobacteria. The release of arsenic As is also suppressed. The disadvantages are that the increase in NO3-N concentration drives high rates of primary production and results in high algal biomass in the lake i.
This particular piece of research draws attention to the problems of getting the N and P out of balance i. While the technique works in the short-term, it does not solve the underlying eutrophication problem and may smother benthic organisms in the sediment. The phosphorus released from the lake sediments is in the form of phosphate which is readily usable by plants, especially algae, for growth.
This gives cyanobacteria a competitive advantage over all other algal species when there is a surplus of P and a deficit of nutrient N in the lake water, and they dominate the algal species assemblage. Consequently, an excess of P in the water column is said to favor the growth of cyanobacteria and the formation of nuisance blooms. Phosphorus inactivation is used to make that P unavailable for algal growth by binding it to a metal.
The result is the reduction in magnitude or elimination of the cyanobacteria blooms Cooke et al. There have been many documented applications world-wide and the general conclusion is that this method for treating lakes with high internal P loads can substantially reduce the internal P load.
The alternative to alum is to use a granular P inactivation agent. These products are designed to inactivate P either in the water column or at the sediment surface before settling on the lake bed as a thin 1—2 mm thick layer. This is the layer referred to as the sediment cap. While a combination of these tools can address the internal problems in the lake, there is also an overriding requirement to address the sources of nutrients from the catchment.
The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. More than 30 million people live in the Great Lakes basin, and the impact of their daily activities, from the water consumed to the waste returned, directly affects the Great Lakes environment.
The total surface is 94, square miles , km2 , and the total volume measured at the low water datum is 5, cubic miles 22, km3. Due to their sea-like characteristics rolling waves, sustained winds, strong currents, great depths, and distant horizons the five Great Lakes have also long been referred to as inland seas.
Lake Superior is the second largest lake in the world by area, and Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country. The Great Lakes began to form at the end of the last glacial period around 14, years ago, as retreating ice sheets carved basins into the land and they became filled with meltwater.
The lakes have been a major highway for transportation, migration and trade, and they are home to a large number of aquatic species. Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Although significant progress over the past 20 years has substantially reduced the discharge of toxic and persistent chemicals to the Great Lakes, persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors have raised considerable concern about potential risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans.
As a result, advisories against fish consumption are in place in most locations around the Great Lakes.
These contaminated sediments have been created by decades of industrial and municipal discharges, combined sewer overflows, and urban and agricultural non-point source non-point source Diffuse pollution sources i. The pollutants are generally carried off the land by storm water.
Common nonpoint sources are agriculture, forestry, urban, mining, construction, dams, channels, land disposal, saltwater intrusion, and city streets, Runoff Water that flows off land into lakes and streams.
Buried contaminants posing serious human and ecological health concerns can be dredged up by storms, ship propellers, and bottom-dwelling organisms. Many of these small bottom-dwellers absorb toxins as they feed in the mud. As larger animals eat these smaller animals, the toxins move up the food chain, with their concentrations getting higher, often thousands of times higher.
Fish at the top of the food chain, such as lake trout and salmon, can be unsafe to eat in some areas because of the heavy concentrations of toxic substances in their tissues. Fish-eating birds, including the bald eagle, may suffer low reproductive rates or produce offspring with birth defects.
While the problem of contaminated sediments persists in the Great Lakes, efforts are being made in the pursuit of remediating these contaminated sediments. In the years through , 5. Another primary reason for water pollution in the Great Lake is due to the use of pesticides in agricultural areas.
A large percentage of all of pollution in the United States comes from nonpoint source pollution. Can refers to either water or air pollution. NPS source water pollution is more common in the Great Lakes. The pollution from the pesticides is caused due to the agricultural areas around the Great Lakes. The NSP pollution is transported into the Great Lakes when water from rainfall, snowmelt or irrigation runs through the ground into the soil that was exposed to pesticides. The water from the runoffs takes the excess pollutants pesticides such as: The pollutants are very concern to the drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and wildlife.
Another problem faced in Great Lakes is the invasive species. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is foreign to an ecosystem.
During the past two centuries, invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. These changes have greatly affected the economy, health, and wellbeing of the people that rely on the system for food, water, and recreation. Once established, it is extremely difficult to control their spread.
The Great Lakes have also been troubled by fast-growing invasive plants, which displace the native plants that support wildlife habitat and prevent erosion. Thirty percent of invasive species in the Great Lakes have been introduced through ship ballast water. In the early s, the U. Coast Guard began requiring ships to exchange their ballast water, or seal their ballast tanks for the duration of their stay.
The Coast Guard later used their success in the Great Lakes to develop a ballast management program for the entire nation. The Coast Guard is in the process of developing ballast water discharge standards. Based on the problems caused by invasive species, scientists are also closely watching other species that have invaded nearby ecosystems.
Asian carp are of particular concern because they have been found in nearby waterways that eventually connect to the Great Lakes.
In , EPA and other state and local agencies began construction of a permanent electric barrier to prevent the fish from entering Lake Michigan. EPA is also studying how existing invasive species have become established in the Great Lakes. These studies will help develop new techniques to predict future invasions. Clean water is fundamental to the health of the Great Lakes.
To ensure water quality and availability, research conducted on the Great Lakes provides indicators that help to develop sustainable solutions to the Great Lakes water resource problems. A task force of 11 federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative.
Short Essay on Environmental Pollution Mili Advertisements: Environmental pollution is the biggest menace to the human race on this planet today. It means adding impurity to environment. The environment consists of earth, water, air, plants and animals. If we pollute them, then the existence of man and nature will be hampered.
Environmental Pollution refers to the introduction of harmful pollutants into the environment. The major types of environmental pollution are air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, soil pollution, thermal pollution, and light pollution. Deforestation and hazardous gaseous emissions also leads to environmental pollution.
Environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems the world faces today. It is an issue that troubles us economically, physically and everyday of our lives. The contamination of the environment is also being linked to some of the diseases that are around currently. Yet, most people do not know /5(20). As the environmental pollution is a broad topic consisting of many sub-issues, there may be many approaches to building the consistent pollution essay. For instance, the pollution essay may concentrate on the various types of pollution, like sound pollution (noise pollution), water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution etc.
Environmental Pollution Our environment is affected by our daily actions. The earth is plagued with land, air and water pollution. Some of the problems we face on earth are: deforestation, nuclear waste, acid rain, global warming, overpopulation and . Environmental pollution essays are narrative essays that are based on experiences in our daily lives. These essays begin with general statements and reflections on the meaning of the topic and the importance of narrative such essays.