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579 Words Essay on Journalism

Essay title: Journalism and Ethics

❶If we think of 'news' in terms of newspaper articles or television reporting, then news is only as old as the technologies of press and video, and dates back to the first newsletters that circulated in Europe in the 17th century.

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That goes for fake news, foreign interference in elections, and hate speech, as well as developers and data privacy. Readers can often evaluate credibility of news by examining the credibility of the underlying news organization. While publications reporting news to the general public in a standardized fashion only began to appear in the 17th century and later, governments as early as Han dynasty China made use of regularly published news bulletins.

As mass-printing technologies like the printing press spread, newspapers were established to provide increasingly literate audiences with news. The first references to privately-owned newspaper publishers in China date to the late Ming dynasty in The first successful English daily, the Daily Courant , was published from to Other governments, such as the Russian Empire , were even more distrusting of journalistic press and effectively banned journalistic publications until the midth century. Newspapers were more heavily concentrated in cities that were centers of trade, such as Amsterdam , London , and Berlin.

The first newspapers in Latin America would be established in the mid-to-late 19th century. Newspapers played a significant role in mobilizing popular support in favor of the liberal revolutions of the late 18th and 19th centuries. In the American Colonies , newspapers motivated people to revolt against British rule by publishing grievances against the British crown and republishing pamphlets by revolutionaries such as Thomas Paine , [21] [22] while loyalist publications motivated support against the American Revolution.

Napoleon would reintroduce strict censorship laws in , but after his reign print publications would flourish and play an important role in political culture. The Russian Bulletin praised Alexander II of Russia's liberal reforms in the late 19th century, and supported increased political and economic freedoms for peasants as well as the establishment of a parliamentary system in Russia.

Journalism in China before primarily served the international community. The overthrow of the old imperial regime in produced a surge in Chinese nationalism, an end to censorship, and a demand for professional, nation-wide journalism. By the late s, however, there was a much greater emphasis on advertising and expanding circulation, and much less interest in the sort of advocacy journalism that had inspired the revolutionaries.

The Parisian newspapers were largely stagnant after the war; circulation inched up to 6 million a day from 5 million in The major postwar success story was Paris Soir ; which lacked any political agenda and was dedicated to providing a mix of sensational reporting to aid circulation, and serious articles to build prestige.

By its circulation was over 1. In addition to its daily paper Paris Soir sponsored a highly successful women's magazine Marie-Claire. Another magazine Match was modeled after the photojournalism of the American magazine Life. By popular journalism in Britain aimed at the largest possible audience, including the working class, had proven a success and made its profits through advertising. Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe — , "More than anyone Developments he introduced or harnessed remain central: Prime Minister Lord Salisbury quipped it was "written by office boys for office boys".

The late 19th and early 20th century in the United States saw the advent of media empires controlled by the likes of William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer. Realizing that they could expand their audience by abandoning politically polarized content, thus making more money off of advertising , American newspapers began to abandon their partisan politics in favor of less political reporting starting around Newspaper publishing became much more heavily professionalized in this era, and issues of writing quality and workroom discipline saw vast improvement.

The rampant discrimination and segregation against African-Americans led to the founding their own daily and weekly newspapers, especially in large cities. While the first Black newspapers in America were established in the early 19th century, [42] in the 20th century these newspapers truly flourished in major cities, with publishers playing a major role in politics and business affairs.

In the s in the United States, as newspapers dropped their blatant partisanship in search of new subscribers, political analyst Walter Lippmann and philosopher John Dewey debated the role of journalism in a democracy. Lippmann's views prevailed for decades, helping to bolster the Progressives' confidence in decision-making by experts, with the general public standing by.

Lippmann argued that high-powered journalism was wasted on ordinary citizens, but was of genuine value to an elite class of administrators and experts. When issues were thoroughly vetted, then the best ideas would bubble to the surface. The danger of demagoguery and false news did not trouble Dewey. His faith in popular democracy has been implemented in various degrees, and is now known as " community journalism ".

Radio broadcasting increased in popularity starting in the s, becoming widespread in the s. While most radio programming was oriented toward music, sports, and entertainment, radio also broadcast speeches and occasional news programming. Radio reached the peak of its importance during World War II , as radio and newsreels were the two main sources of up-to-date information on the ongoing war. In the Soviet Union , radio would be heavily utilized by the state to broadcast political speeches by leadership.

These broadcasts would very rarely have any additional editorial content or analysis, setting them apart from modern news reporting. Starting in the s, United States broadcast television channels would air tominute segments of news programming one or two times per evening. The era of live-TV news coverage would begin in the s with the assassination of John F. Kennedy , broadcast and reported to live on a variety of nationally syndicated television channels.

During the 60s and 70s, television channels would begin adding regular morning or midday news shows. Starting in with the establishment of CNN , news channels began providing hour news coverage, a format which persists through today. The role and status of journalism, as well as mass media, has undergone changes over the last two decades, together with the advancement of digital technology and publication of news on the Internet.

Notably, in the American media landscape, newsrooms have reduced their staff and coverage as traditional media channels, such as television, grappling with declining audiences. For example, between and , CNN edited its story packages into nearly half of their original time length. The compactness in coverage has been linked to broad audience attrition.

Using video camera-equipped smartphones, active citizens are now enabled to record footage of news events and upload them onto channels like YouTube which is often discovered and used by mainstream news media outlets. News from a variety of online sources, like blogs and other social media, results in a wider choice of official and unofficial sources, rather than only traditional media organizations. While various existing codes have some differences, most share common elements including the principles of — truthfulness , accuracy , objectivity , impartiality, fairness and public accountability — as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent dissemination to the public.

In this view, the essence of journalism is to provide citizens with reliable information through the discipline of verification. Some journalistic Codes of Ethics, notably the European ones, [58] also include a concern with discriminatory references in news based on race , religion , sexual orientation , and physical or mental disabilities. This includes points like respecting people's privacy and ensuring accuracy. However, the Media Standards Trust has criticized the PCC, claiming it needs to be radically changed to secure the public trust of newspapers.

This is in stark contrast to the media climate prior to the 20th century, where the media market was dominated by smaller newspapers and pamphleteers who usually had an overt and often radical agenda, with no presumption of balance or objectivity. Because of the pressure on journalists to report news promptly and before their competitors, factual errors occur more frequently than in writing produced and edited under less time pressure.

Thus a typical issue of a major daily newspaper may contain several corrections of articles published the previous day. Perhaps the most famous journalistic mistake caused by time pressure was the Dewey Defeats Truman edition of the Chicago Daily Tribune , based on early election returns that failed to anticipate the actual result of the US presidential election. Such a code of conduct can, in the real world, be difficult to uphold consistently. Reporting and editing do not occur in a vacuum but always reflect the political context in which journalists, no less than other citizens, operate.

A news organization's budget inevitably reflects decision-making about what news to cover, for what audience, and in what depth. When budgets are cut, editors may sacrifice reporters in distant news bureaus, reduce the number of staff assigned to low-income areas, or wipe entire communities from the publication's zone of interest. And the paper will include that vital ingredient serendipity - the story you didn't expect, the "just fancy that", the absurdities as well as the travails of the human condition.

Journalism is basically a simple game. It is about finding things out and telling other people about them.

The finding out requires a variety of skills because those in power often prefer that we know only so much. Journalism is about holding such people to account, exposing their humbug and hypocrisy, the abuse of their power. This includes the control it gives them over the flow of information, the ability to bury the bad news, to spin and obfuscate. Good journalists must ask the awkward questions and question the answers, must dig to unearth and then explain, making comprehensible that which authority, by intent or verbal inadequacy, has left confused, incomplete or plain mendacious.

Incomprehensible journalism is quite simply bad journalism, and therefore pointless. Ultimately there is only one purpose: If they don't, what was the point of finding it out and telling it? This booklet picks up the story when the reader has reached the stage of deciding to address the story. That is not the same as reading it, or even reading a certain amount of it. They have just reached the first word, perhaps attracted by the picture, the extracted quote, or any of the other presentational devices used to drag the reader to the story.

We have reached the stage where the reader is going to subject the story to the final test, reading some or all of it. This is about writing. Newspaper reading is different from reading a book. Names like Janet Cooke and Stephen Glass are familiar names to all journalists as well as to their editors. The good news however, is that while there are so many reasons to copy the work of another, or even make stories up, there are just as many ways to prevent these actions from taking place in journalism.

One thing that can help prevent plagiarism is for individual publications or other media outlets to establish their own codes of ethics. These codes need to be specific in describing the expectations of employees. The codes also need to define the penalties for such behavior. Whether it be probation, suspension, or even termination from the organization entirely, employees need to know the consequences for breaking these codes.

The employers also need to establish stricter policies on dealing with such actions.

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Essay on Journalism Type of paper: Essays Subject: Journalism, Society & Family Words: The development and progress of human society always brings about new situations, creates new professions and changes the nature of the ones that exist already. One of the occupations that has.

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