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Accessed January 9, The initiatives are briefly described below and will be discussed in more detail in Chapters 3 and 4. The funds support research that focuses on novel materials for hydrogen storage, functional membranes, and nanoscale catalysts.

Multi-investigator teams were sought, but industry and single investigators were not prevented from competing for Cataly- sis Science Initiative awards. Those grants were provided to individual researchers and small groups in academe and at national laboratories.

The program encourages multidisciplinary collaboration between its researchers and supports research that encompasses different types of catalysts, catalytic processes, and tech- niques, which will be described in more detail below.

In addition to research grants, the Catalysis Science Program supports research centers and workshops as other mechanisms for sharing knowledge and fostering collaboration. Office of Sciences Notice , Catalysis Science. Reflects funding for baseline that the HFI augments or redirects.

Accessed February 5, Programmatic Activities BES states that it strives to understand how electronic, molecular, and material structures determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics and to control mechanisms and kinetics by means of catalytic structures designed a priori. The program also funds facilities and pos- sibly will fund centers in These activities are discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. Research Grants As mentioned earlier, the Catalysis Science Program has sponsored more than 1, research grants at universities and national laboratories since FY Figure Universities have received a larger number of grants than national laboratories, but the overall dollar amount for grants has been split al- most equally between universities and national laboratories.

DOE recognizes the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration to address modern catalysis-related issues, but grants typically are provided to individual investigators. The Catalysis Science Program staff says that it does not have a fixed target allocation of single- investigator versus multi-investigator projects; however, multi-investigator and multidisciplinary collaboration is encouraged and is often specified in requests for applications.

Facilities In fulfillment of its mission, BES plans, constructs, and operates user facilities that are available for academic, national laboratory, and industrial sci- entists. The Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium is a group of academic, national laboratory, and industrial institu- tions specifically funded by the Catalysis Science Program.

It provides expert staff, training courses, and facilities in an effort to assist in the development of science and techniques in the catalysis community. Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Accessed Feb- ruary 2, Contractor Meetings Since , the Catalysis Science Program has conducted annual con- tractor meetings as a means of sharing information and encouraging contact among and within disciplines.

Contractor meetings differ from regular profes- sional conferences. Because funding began in FY for most electrocatalysis projects and in FY for other projects, it is difficult to assess the impact of this body of work.

However, the collection of electro- catalysis and catalysis research in the portfolio is appropriate. The research mostly reflects the technical challenges that arise when fuel hydrogen is pro- duced from hydrocarbon resources for example, carbon monoxide poisoning on platinum electrodes and the use of catalysts for reforming methane rather than from electrolysis of water by solar or nuclear means. Homogeneous Catalysis Grants for research in homogeneous catalysis constitute a smaller por- tion of the current portfolio but have had an important impact on the Catalysis Science Program.

For FY , the grants were divided into two main research topics: The committee also assessed the research topics of homogeneous catalysis in organic synthesis and in biorelated projects. Single-Site Polymerization grants have made significant contributions to the understanding of fundamental catalysis.

Single-site polymerization is one of the important advances in catalysis of the past 25 years. The Catalysis Science Pro- gram has strongly supported single-site polymerization research from the incep- tion of the field and must be credited with having a great impact on its develop- ment. This is an excellent example of the value of basic research and of how funding productive, well-qualified individual principal investigators can lead to.

The program has made major contributions to successes in fundamental research in this area. The ultimate goal of research in C-H activation catalysis is to find catalysts that will incorporate C-H activation into hydrocarbon-conversion technology, which will lead to functionalized compounds needed for feedstocks in the chemical industry or to the conversion of methane into useful liquid transportation fuels.

However, the program has limited its impact by focusing its support on studies of C-H activation. Simple functionalization of hydrocarbons after C-H activation has not been realized, and new ideas are needed. Designs based on alkyl group transfer to a second metal or on bifunctional ligands are possibilities. The study of C-H functionali- zation in biological processes also could help to inform research in this area.

Homogeneous Catalysis in Organic Synthesis grants are a very small but still important part of the Catalysis Science Program portfolio.

For example, the high inherent selectivity of homogeneous catalysts allows the production of molecules of desired handedness or enantioselectivity asymmetric catalysis , which is critical for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agricul- tural chemicals, and electronic material.

The selectivity of these catalysts pre- sents the potential to conserve resources, increase energy efficiency, and reduce waste. Biorelated grants are another small but important part of the Catalysis Science Program portfolio. Biological processes provide understanding of important catalytic reactions such as C-H functionalization.

Many projects in the homoge- neous catalysis portfolio are described as bioinspired, but there are only a few examples of research that carefully analyzes the mechanistic implications of enzyme active sites and the requirements met by the surrounding protein matrix.

Multi-investigator and interdisciplinary programs such as the Catalysis Science Initiative should remain a part of the portfolio, but future teams might benefit from the inclusion of more homogeneous catalysis and bio- catalysis researchers that are interested in energy solutions. The program should utilize future funding initiatives as a mechanism to maintain the balance of ex-. Influences on the Portfolio The Catalysis Science Program should continue to broaden participa- tion in its contractor meetings and other activities.

This is particularly impor- tant in the development of research directions that will have a long-term impact on the program. Principal Investigators The Catalysis Science Program should continue on its current path of maintaining support for productive, long-term researchers and of recruiting new researchers. The balance of funding for individual investigators and small groups should also be maintained. Heterogeneous Catalysis The distribution of grants in the heterogeneous catalysis portfolio should be changed slightly.

Studies on high surface area catalysts, surface sci- ence, nanoscience, and electrocatalysis should be maintained, but there should be a stronger emphasis on studies that explore catalyst design and new synthesis methods, unique reactor systems, unique characterization techniques, and com- pletely new chemical reactions.

Support for the development of theoretical methods also should feature more prominently in the portfolio. Homogeneous Catalysis A balanced homogeneous catalysis portfolio should extend beyond in- dividual mechanistic steps to include greater development of new catalytic sys- tems and reactions.

The portfolio can be improved by pursuing opportunities in C-H bond functionalization, new approaches to transition-metal catalysis, and electrochemical catalysis small molecule homogeneous catalysts supported on.

In addition, there should be a greater emphasis on reducing highly oxidized compounds such as bioderived materials into fuels and feedstocks, and on bioinspired catalytic processes. The program has supported many well-established researchers who are world leaders in catalysis science.

It has also supported many new researchers, who have largely entered the program through special initiatives, such as the Cataly- sis Science Initiative and the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The program has and should continue to play a key role in meeting national energy needs.

This book presents an in-depth analysis of the investment in catalysis basic research by the U. Catalysis is essential to our ability to control chemical reactions, including those involved in energy transformations. Catalysis is therefore integral to current and future energy solutions, such as the environmentally benign use of hydrocarbons and new energy sources such as biomass and solar energy and new efficient energy systems such as fuel cells. Catalysis for Energy concludes that BES has done well with its investment in catalysis basic research.

Its investment has led to a greater understanding of the fundamental catalytic processes that underlie energy applications, and it has contributed to meeting long-term national energy goals by focusing research on catalytic processes that reduce energy consumption or use alternative energy sources. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one.

Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Yong Cao is currently a professor of Chemistry at Fudan University. His main research activities focus on fundamental aspects of heterogeneous catalysis and the development of new sustainable green catalysis by supported metals and related materials.

One key activity of the research group is the development of novel catalytic route to renewable chemicals and related energy conversion processes based on small molecule activation. His main interest is in porous materials, such as zeolites, layered double hydroxides and MOFs, in the interactions of organic molecules with these materials, and in catalytic transformations inside the pores.

Roeffaers, he pioneered the visualisation of active sites in porous materials by light microscopic techniques. His team made ground breaking discoveries in the application of metal-organic frameworks to liquid phase separation and catalysis, and in the shaping of MOFs as films or patterns.

Breck Award of the International Zeolite association. His current research interests are asymmetric homogeneous catalysis, biocatalysis, combinatorial synthesis, and artificial metalloenzymes. After postdoctoral research at the California Institute of Technology, she began her independent career at the University of British Columbia in

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homogeneous catalysis is presently a very vibrant and active area of industrial research. Recently, the First International Symposium on Homogeneous Catalysis was held from November 29 through December 1, in Corpus Christi, Texas.

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Fundamental strategic aims of our research are the development of new, environmentally benign catalysts and synthetic protocols as well as their application in industry. The transfer of results from model studies and mechanistic investigations to specific chemical products or processes is a particularly important aspect here.

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During the 70's it has become drastically apparent that our natural resources, including energy, are not in unlimited supply. This realization is strongly felt . This workshop on homogeneous catalysis was sponsored by the Na­ tional Science Foundation (United States) and by the National Research Council (Italy). Additional financial support was provided by Montedison, E.N.I., and S.I.R.