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Research Paper Outline

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❶A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.

Definition of A Research Project Proposal

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Significance and Purpose of Research Proposal
Introduction

There have been many high profile scientific breakthroughs over the years whose results were unable to be repeated; these experiments were disregarded. For field studies you should give an exact map reference and time as well as including a map in the appendix. If you used complex machinery or computer programs in the course of your experiment, to avoid breaking the flow of your report, you should give only the main information and refer to the exact technical specifications in the appendix.

These should be a quick synopsis of the facts, figures and statistical tests used to arrive at your final results. You should try to avoid cluttering up your report and insert most of your raw data into the appendix.

It is far better to stick with including only tables and graphs that show clearly the results. Do not be tempted to insert large numbers of graphs and figures just for the sake of it; each figure and graph should be mentioned, referred to and discussed in the text. Try to avoid putting in tables and graphs showing the same information; select the type that shows your results most clearly. It is usually preferable to use graphs and relegate the tables to the appendix because it is easier to show trends in graphical format.

Figures and graphs should be clear and occupy at least half a page; you are not a magazine editor trying to fit a small graph into an article. All such information must be numbered, as diagrams for graphs and illustrations, and figures for tables; they should be referred to by this number in the body of the report.

You do not need to put the full breakdown of the calculations used for your statistical tests; most scientists hate statistics and are only interested in whether your results were significant or not.

Relegate the calculations to the appendix. The results section of your report should be neutral and you should avoid discussing your results or how they differed from or compared with what was expected. This information belongs in the next section. This is the pivotal section of your hard work in obtaining and analyzing your results. In your discussion you should seek to discuss your findings, and describe how they compared and differed from the results you expected.

In a nutshell, you are trying to show whether your hypothesis was proved, not proved or inconclusive. You must be extremely critical of yourself in this section; you will not get marked down for mistakes in experiment design or for poor results, only for not recognizing them. Everybody who has written a dissertation or thesis has had to give a presentation to a room full of fellow students, scientists and professors and give a quick synopsis.

These people will tear your report apart if you do not recognize its shortcomings and flaws. Very few experiments are per cent correct in their design and conception so it is not really important what your results were, only that you understand their significance. Usually you will have had some promising results and some that did not fit with what you expected. Discuss why things may have gone wrong and what could be done to refine the results in future. Suggest what changes in experimental design might improve the results; there is no right or wrong in science, only progress.

Finally, you can discuss at the end ideas for further research, either refining the experiment or suggesting new areas. Even if your paper was a one off, somebody may come along and decide that they find your research interesting and that they would like to continue from where you left off.

This is really just a more elaborate version of the abstract. In a few paragraphs you should summarize your findings. Your abstract will do most of this for you but, as long as you do not get carried away, especially for longer reports, it can help the reader absorb your findings a little more. Include all of your direct references here, even if you only found a couple of sentences. In the case where somebody referred to an original source, reference that too, but if you did not manage to get hold of it, try to rewrite so that you will not have to reference or use "referred in"-citation.

Here it is polite to acknowledge anybody who helped you with this report, although do not go overboard; it is not an Oscar speech. Your supervisor is a good start, as well as others who helped. If a landowner gave you permission to take samples then it is good practice to acknowledge them and give them a summary of your results, if permitted.

Appendices are very useful because they give you a place to dump raw data and calculations. They must still be laid out correctly; the data must be relevant and referred to in the main report.

If you have a lot of relevant photographs of sample sites and methods then they belong here. It is also useful to insert a Google map plan to show from where you took samples.

Hopefully this will have given you a good oversight into writing that perfect report. It is not as daunting as it seems and if you do your research and listen to your supervisor then all should be well and you can get a good grade.

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Check Out the Official Book Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level. Read More also available as ebook. This article is a part of the guide: Select from one of the other courses available: Don't miss these related articles:. Save this course for later Don't have time for it all now? Add to my courses. Take it with you wherever you go. The Research Council of Norway.

Share this page on your website: Check out our quiz-page with tests about: The title of the research must be clear and succinct, indicating the problem area around which the research work will be undertaken. Mostly, the titles are expressed in functional relationship forms because this highlights the dependent and independent variables. The titles can also be in the form of informative statements.

Under the caption of background, you need to describe the research problem under investigation. Explain why you think the research topic you have chosen is worth doing. Give both personal and business reasons to support your argument. The reasons you provide must be scientific and logical and supported by evidences.

You may also write down the major issues the research topic will be addressing. The proposal must include a critical review of the literature you have studied for carrying out the research. In this section, you acknowledge the researchers whose works have formed a foundation for your research.

The literature review may lead you to the formation of a hypothetical statement, conceptual framework and identification of dependent and independent variables. The literature review must also explain the need for research on your topic. In this section, you must write down the key research questions as they emerge from reviewing the literature.

Narrow down the objectives of your research in three to five pointers. Use higher level verbs here such as:. Your proposal must present a brief research plan that you will be undertaking. The research plan is typically divided into seven phases:.

Mention any ethical issues the research will give rise to and how you intend to handle them. Also write how you would be avoiding plagiarism. In the end, mention how much time you will take to complete the research.

Provide a brief chronological illustration, explaining what amount of time is allocated to what research tasks. List down any special help or resources that you will be requiring or plan to consult. In case of acceptance of your research proposal, you will be working on a detailed bibliography but you can give a brief idea of the resources that you are attempting to begin with.


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Research Paper Outline Examples Once you've decided what topic you will be writing about, the next thing you should pay attention to is the scope of your paper or what you will be including in your discussion.

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Tutorial to the research paper outline. It helps you through the steps of writing a research paper. Good writing is essential for any article or term paper.

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Outline for Research Proposal Psy | Spring Organize your final research proposal according to the following outline. Clearly indicate sections of the paper by using headings that indicate where particular kinds of information can. Sample Outline for a Research Project luvenagesov.gablem 2 (Here, again, the subproblem will be restate and the four steps: a, b, c, and d, are detailed. Then each succeeding subproblem will be given similar treatment.).

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The research problem is the focal point from which the rest of the outline flows. Try to sum up the point of your paper in one sentence or phrase. It also can be key to deciding what the title of your paper should be. How To: Outlining a Research Paper research paper related to air quality. I am providing it here to offer you some guidance on preparing a good outline. It is possible that some of the details will not apply to your paper – for instance, your.