God — The Being of God. God — Love to God. Grace — Concerning Efficacious Grace. Heaven — General Observations. Heaven — The Happiness of Heaven.
New Heaven and New Earth. Images of Divine Things. The Divinity of Christ. The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language. A large number of Puritan texts were written in the church sermon style. Puritanism in American Literature. About the Author Karl Wallulis has been writing since Depending on which text editor you're pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name.
Puritan Belief in Plainness. Differences Between the Puritan and Catholic Faiths. English Grammar Rules on Tenses. Boys' education prepared them for vocations and leadership roles, while girls were educated for domestic and religious purposes.
The pinnacle of achievement for children in Puritan society, however, occurred with the conversion process. Puritans viewed the relationship between master and servant similarly to that of parent and child. Just as parents were expected to uphold Puritan religious values in the home, masters assumed the parental responsibility of housing and educating young servants. Older servants also dwelt with masters and were cared for in the event of illness or injury.
African-American and Indian servants were likely excluded from such benefits. Like most Christians in the early modern period , Puritans believed in the active existence of the devil and demons as evil forces that could possess and cause harm to men and women.
There was also widespread belief in witchcraft and witches—persons in league with the devil. Puritan pastors undertook exorcisms for demonic possession in some high-profile cases. However, Harsnett was in the minority, and many clergy, not only Puritans, believed in witchcraft and possession. In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of people throughout Europe were accused of being witches and executed. In England and America, Puritans engaged in witch hunts as well.
In the s, Matthew Hopkins , the self-proclaimed "Witchfinder General", was responsible for accusing over two hundred people of witchcraft, mainly in East Anglia. In New England, few people were accused and convicted of witchcraft before ; there were at most sixteen convictions. The Salem witch trials of had a lasting impact on the historical reputation of New England Puritans.
Though this witch hunt occurred after Puritans lost political control of the Massachusetts colony , Puritans instigated the judicial proceedings against the accused and comprised the members of the court that convicted and sentenced the accused. By the time Governor William Phips ended the trials, fourteen women and five men had been hanged as witches.
Puritan millennialism has been placed in the broader context of European Reformed beliefs about the millennium and interpretation of biblical prophecy , for which representative figures of the period were Johannes Piscator , Thomas Brightman , Joseph Mede , Johannes Heinrich Alsted , and John Amos Comenius. Protestant theologians identified the sequential phases the world must pass through before the Last Judgment could occur and tended to place their own time period near the end.
It was expected that tribulation and persecution would increase but eventually the church's enemies—the Antichrist identified with the Roman Catholic Church and the Ottoman Empire —would be defeated. In contrast to other Protestants who tended to view eschatology as an explanation for "God's remote plans for the world and man", Puritans understood it to describe "the cosmic environment in which the regenerate soldier of Christ was now to do battle against the power of sin".
On a larger level, eschatology was the lens through which events such as the English Civil War and the Thirty Years' War were interpreted. There was also an optimistic aspect to Puritan millennianism; Puritans anticipated a future worldwide religious revival before the Second Coming of Christ.
David Brady describes a "lull before the storm" [ further explanation needed ] in the early 17th century, in which "reasonably restrained and systematic" Protestant exegesis of the Book of Revelation was seen with Brightman, Mede, and Hugh Broughton , after which "apocalyptic literature became too easily debased" as it became more populist and less scholarly.
Some strong religious beliefs common to Puritans had direct impacts on culture. Education was essential to every person, male and female, so that they could read the Bible for themselves. However, the Puritans' emphasis on individual spiritual independence was not always compatible with the community cohesion that was also a strong ideal.
At a time when the literacy rate in England was less than 30 percent, the Puritan leaders of colonial New England believed children should be educated for both religious and civil reasons, and they worked to achieve universal literacy.
In , the government required all towns with 50 or more households to hire a teacher and towns of or more households to hire a grammar school instructor to prepare promising boys for college. Boys interested in the ministry were often sent to colleges such as Harvard founded in or Yale founded in The Merton Thesis is an argument about the nature of early experimental science proposed by Robert K.
Similar to Max Weber 's famous claim on the link between the Protestant work ethic and the capitalist economy , Merton argued for a similar positive correlation between the rise of English Puritanism, as well as German Pietism , and early experimental science.
In the year , 62 percent of the members of the Royal Society were similarly identified. Puritans in both England and New England believed that the state should protect and promote true religion and that religion should influence politics and social life.
In , Parliament outlawed the celebration of Christmas , Easter and Whitsuntide. English jails were usually filled with drunken revelers and brawlers. Puritans were opposed to Sunday sport or recreation because these distracted from religious observance of the Sabbath. For example, Puritans were universally opposed to blood sports such as bearbaiting and cockfighting because they involved unnecessary injury to God's creatures. For similar reasons, they also opposed boxing.
Card playing and gambling were banned in England and the colonies but card playing by itself was generally considered acceptable , as was mixed dancing involving men and women because it was thought to lead to fornication. Puritans condemned the sexualization of the theatre and its associations with depravity and prostitution—London's theatres were located on the south side of the Thames , which was a center of prostitution.
A major Puritan attack on the theatre was William Prynne 's book Histriomastix. Puritan authorities shut down English theatres in the s and s, and none were allowed to open in Puritan-controlled colonies. Puritans were not opposed to drinking alcohol in moderation. Laws banned the practice of individuals toasting each other, with the explanation that it led to wasting God's gift of beer and wine, as well as being carnal.
Bounds were not set on enjoying sexuality within the bounds of marriage, as a gift from God. Women and men were equally expected to fulfill marital responsibilities. In Massachusetts colony, which had some of the most liberal colonial divorce laws, one out of every six divorce petitions was filed on the basis on male impotence. The Puritans exhibited intolerance to other religious views, including Quaker , Anglican and Baptist theologies. The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony were the most active of the New England persecutors of Quakers, and the persecuting spirit was shared by the Plymouth Colony and the colonies along the Connecticut river.
In , one of the most notable victims of the religious intolerance was English Quaker Mary Dyer , who was hanged in Boston for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers from the colony. The hanging of Dyer on Boston Common marked the beginning of the end of the Puritan theocracy. The first two of the four Boston martyrs were executed by the Puritans on 27 October , and in memory of this, 27 October is now International Religious Freedom Day to recognise the importance of freedom of religion.
The literature on Puritans, particularly biographical literature on individual Puritan ministers, was already voluminous in the 17th century and, indeed, the interests of Puritans in the narratives of early life and conversions made the recording of the internal lives important to them. The historical literature on Puritans is, however, quite problematic and subject to controversies over interpretation.
The early writings are those of the defeated, excluded and victims. The great interest of authors of the 19th century in Puritan figures was routinely accused in the 20th century of consisting of anachronism and the reading back of contemporary concerns.
A debate continues on the definition of "Puritanism". The national context England and Wales, as well as the kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland frames the definition of Puritans, but was not a self-identification for those Protestants who saw the progress of the Thirty Years' War from as directly bearing on their denomination, and as a continuation of the religious wars of the previous century, carried on by the English Civil Wars. English historian Christopher Hill , who has contributed to analyses of Puritan concerns that are more respected than accepted, writes of the s, old church lands, and the accusations that William Laud was a crypto-Catholic:.
To the heightened Puritan imagination it seemed that, all over Europe, the lamps were going out: Puritans were politically important in England, but it is debated whether the movement was in any way a party with policies and leaders before the early s. While Puritanism in New England was important culturally for a group of colonial pioneers in America, there have been many studies trying to pin down exactly what the identifiable cultural component was.
Fundamentally, historians remain dissatisfied with the grouping as "Puritan" as a working concept for historical explanation. The conception of a Protestant work ethic , identified more closely with Calvinist or Puritan principles, has been criticised at its root, [ by whom? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Puritan disambiguation. Evangelicalism Charismatic movement Neo-charismatic movement.
Nondenominational churches House churches. History of the Puritans. History of the Puritans under Elizabeth I. History of the Puritans under James I. History of the Puritans from History of the Puritans in North America.
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Puritan Gentry Besieged — Congregationalists were theologically descended directly from the Puritans of England and consequently enjoyed pride of place as one of the oldest, most numerous, and most significant religious groups in the colonies. An Orthodox View of Christian History". Social History in Perspective. Archived from the original on 9 December Retrieved 21 August Jack Trickler 4 February A Layman's Guide To: Archived from the original on 18 July
The Puritans believed Christians have a duty to glorify and enjoy God, and they took every opportunity to do so, through avenues as diverse as devotional study and prayer, public worship, the raising of families, literature, hard work, and vigorous living.
Classic Puritan Books. J. I. Packer’s Rare Puritan Library. History of the Westminster Assembly. Directory of Puritans. A Puritan's Mind. Grace Online Library. A Puritan Devotional Podcast. Church History Timeline: the Puritans. Centre for Dissenting Studies. Early English Books Online (EEBO).
Early literature written by Puritans in America often appeared as first person narratives in the form of journals and diaries. Early American colonists wrote their accounts of immigration, settling in America, and day-to-day life in journals to pass their stories down. One component of Puritan writing was a genre called Plain style. This type of literature was meant to show readers that Christ alone was righteous enough to be Savior and that people, symbolized by the characters of the story, would never be good enough to .
Puritan authors approached writing from a personal point of view, with many of their writings coming in the form of journals, diaries, and day-to-day experiences. By writing from a first-person perspective, thoughts are conveyed from . The Puritan movement of Jacobean times became distinctive by adaptation and compromise, with the emergence of "semi-separatism," "moderate puritanism," the writings of William Bradshaw, who adopted the term "Puritan" as self-identification, and the beginnings of congregationalism.