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Reliability & Validity

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❶The Research Council of Norway.

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What is Reliability?
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The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution. Don't have time for it all now? No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Martyn Shuttleworth K reads. Share this page on your website: This article is a part of the guide: Select from one of the other courses available: Don't miss these related articles:.

Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Back to Overview "Validity and Reliability". Related articles Related pages: Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments. Leave this field blank: Want to stay up to date? Save this course for later Don't have time for it all now? Add to my courses. Search Community Search Community. Establishing Validity in Qualitative Research The following module discusses reliability and validity in qualitative research, with an emphasis on establishing credibility and transferability.

Define and reliability and validity in qualitative research. Discuss the importance of establishing validity. List strategies used by researchers to improve reliability and validity. In order to withstand the scrutiny, researchers should spend time giving serious consideration to the following four aspects: Credibility - Often called internal validity, refers to the believability and trustworthiness of the findings.

This depends more on the richness of the data gathered than on the quantity of data. The participants of the study are the only ones that decide if the results actually reflect the phenomena being studied and therefore, it is important that participants feel the findings are credible and accurate.

Triangulation is a commonly used method for verifying accuracy that involves cross-checking information from multiple perspectives. The link in Resources Links on the left describes different types of triangulation methods.

Transferability - Often called external validity, refers to the degree that the findings of the research can be transferred to other contexts by the readers. This means that the results are generalizable and can be applied to other similar settings, populations, situations and so forth. Researchers should thoroughly describe the context of the research to assist the reader in being able to generalize the findings and apply them appropriately.

Dependability - Otherwise known as reliability, refers to the consistency with which the results could be repeated and result in similar findings. The dependability of the findings also lends legitimacy to the research method. Because the nature of qualitative research often results in an ever changing research setting and changing contexts, it is important that researcher document all aspects of any changes or unexpected occurrences to further explain the findings.

Your measure in this case is neither reliable nor valid. Finally, we see the "Robin Hood" scenario -- you consistently hit the center of the target. Your measure is both reliable and valid I bet you never thought of Robin Hood in those terms before. Another way we can think about the relationship between reliability and validity is shown in the figure below. Here, we set up a 2x2 table. The columns of the table indicate whether you are trying to measure the same or different concepts. The rows show whether you are using the same or different methods of measurement.

Imagine that we have two concepts we would like to measure, student verbal and math ability. Furthermore, imagine that we can measure each of these in two ways. Second, we can ask the student's classroom teacher to give us a rating of the student's ability based on their own classroom observation.

The first cell on the upper left shows the comparison of the verbal written test score with the verbal written test score. But how can we compare the same measure with itself? We could do this by estimating the reliability of the written test through a test-retest correlation, parallel forms, or an internal consistency measure See Types of Reliability.

What we are estimating in this cell is the reliability of the measure.


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Issues of research reliability and validity need to be addressed in methodology chapter in a concise manner. Reliability refers to the extent to which the same answers can be obtained using the same instruments more than one time.

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Validity encompasses the entire experimental concept and establishes whether the results obtained meet all of the requirements of the scientific research method. For example, there must have been randomization of the sample groups and appropriate care and diligence shown in .

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Construct validity is the term given to a test that measures a construct accurately and there are different types of construct validity that we should be concerned with. Three of these, concurrent validity, content validity, and predictive validity are discussed below. Concurrent Validity. Define reliability, including the different types and how they are assessed. Define validity, including the different types and how they are assessed. Describe the kinds of evidence that would be relevant to assessing the reliability and validity of a particular measure.

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Different methods vary with regard to these two aspects of validity. Experiments, because they tend to be structured and controlled, are often high on internal validity. However, their strength with regard to structure and control, may result in low external validity. Sampling Validity (similar to content validity) ensures that the area of coverage of the measure within the research area is vast. No measure is able to cover all items and elements within the phenomenon, therefore, important items and elements are selected using a specific pattern of sampling method depending on aims and objectives of the study.